1990s: HACCP becomes widely adopted by food manufacturers, in part because it is mandated by the FDA for fish and fishery products (1995) and by the USDA for meat and poultry products (1996). FDA approves irradiation to control harmful bacteria in fresh and frozen poultry (1990) and red meats (1997). Pasteurization process for shell eggs, ohmic heating (passes an electrical current through food to heat it rapidly to a sterilizing temperature), and flash pasteurization (rapid heating and cooling) of fresh juices commercially applied to enhance safety and quality of foods. High pressure processing (uses hydrostatic pressure of 50,000 to 100,000 psi) is commercially applied to fresh packaged foods (1998) to kill spoilage microorganisms without altering flavor, appearance or nutritional value. Steam pasteurization and vacuuming of beef carcasses introduced to reduce microbial hazards. The rDNA-engineered enzyme, chymosin, replaces rennet in most cheese production because it is produced in mass quantities with more consistent quality and purity. First rDNA-engineered plant food, a tomato with delayed ripening, commercially introduced (1994). Active packaging systems that interact with package contents or the package's internal atmosphere are developed to enhance product freshness. Not-from-concentrate citrus juices commercialized. Grain products first fortified with folic acid (1998) and orange juice with calcium.
Some significant achievements of the century span several decades, such as food enrichment (nutrients lost in processing added back to food) and fortification (addition of nutrients not originally present in foods) to help deliver key nutrients to consumers and safe canning practices. Although Nicholas Appert developed the canning process between 1775 and 1810, it has been within the last 60 years that food scientists have determined thermal processes needed for the safe canning of specific vegetables. Safe canning results in com
Contact: Angela Dansby
Institute of Food Technologists