HOME >> BIOLOGY >> NEWS
22-amino acid bacterium created by Scripps scientists

bosome, into a protein. The ribosome requires the help of transfer RNA molecules (tRNA) that have been "loaded" with an amino acid, and that requires the help of a "loading" enzyme.

Each tRNA recognizes one specific three-base combination, or "codon," on the mRNA and gets loaded with only the one amino acid that is specific for that codon.

During protein synthesis, the tRNA specific for the next codon on the mRNA comes in loaded with the right amino acid, and the ribosome grabs the amino acid and attaches it to the growing protein chain.

The redundancy of the genetic code comes from the fact that there are more codons than there are amino acids used. In fact, there are 4x4x4 = 64 different possible ways to make a codon -- or any three-digit combination of four letters in the mRNA (UAG, ACG, UCC, etc.). With only 20 amino acids used by the organisms, not all of the codons are theoretically necessary.

But nature uses them anyway. Several of the 64 codons are redundant, coding for the same amino acid, and three of them are nonsense codons -- they don't code for any amino acid at all.

These nonsense codons are useful because normally when a ribosome that is synthesizing a protein reaches a nonsense codon, the ribosome dissociates from the mRNA and synthesis stops. Hence, nonsense codons are also referred to as "stop" codons. One of these, the amber stop codon UAG, played an important role in Schultz's research.

Schultz and his colleagues knew that if they could provide their cells with a tRNA molecule that recognizes UAG and also provide them with a synthetase "loading" enzyme that loaded the tRNA with an unnatural amino acid, the scientists would have a way to site-specifically insert the unusual amino acid into any protein they wanted.

They needed to find a functionally "orthogonal" paira tRNA/synthetase pair that react with each other but not with endogenous E. coli pairs. So they devised a
'"/>

Contact: Jason Bardi
jasonb@scripps.edu
858-784-9254
Scripps Research Institute
11-May-2004


Page: 1 2 3 4 5

Related biology news :

1. Environmental decontamination, greenhouse gases, and the genome of a methane-loving bacterium
2. Genetically modified bacterium as remedy for intestinal diseases
3. Male-killer bacteriums genome is deciphered
4. Male-targeting bacteriums genome is deciphered
5. Scientists decode DNA of bacterium that cleans up uranium contamination and generates electricity
6. Scientists decipher genome of bacterium that remediates uranium contamination, generates electricity
7. Scientists find key to ocean bacterium that helps control greenhouse gas
8. Novel bacterium detoxifies chlorinated pollutants
9. Fighting Mycobacterium tuberculosis with structural proteomics
10. Genetic blueprint for Q fever bacterium unveiled
11. With toxic crystals, bacterium targets - and takes out nematodes

Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
TAG: amino acid bacterium created Scripps scientists

(Date:10/29/2014)... . Meiosis ... at the Max F. Perutz Laboratories (MFPL) of the ... dived into the process of meiosis in specific plant ... of the standard meiotic phases. The researchers describe the ... . , Meiosis is the two-step series of cell ...
(Date:10/29/2014)... reveals new research potential of the Barcode of ... in the Biodiversity Data Journal ... format and imported these into a human-readable text developed ... (PWT). Data were used to study the species distributions ... Microgastrinae subfamily. , BOLD is originally designed to support ...
(Date:10/29/2014)... world compete with members of their own species. ... invest into their competitive ability. Some individuals are ... high-quality resources, while others seem to avoid competition, ... that are left over for them. Moreover, the ... seems to fluctuate considerably over time. A theoretical ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):Meiotic cell division 'the other way round' 2Go straight and publish: From Barcode of Life Data Systems to scholarly publishing systems 2Evolution of competitiveness 2Evolution of competitiveness 3
(Date:10/31/2014)... Texas (PRWEB) October 31, 2014 ... on Global and China Biocides industry. The report ... application, and industry chain structure as well as ... analysis, including China’s domestic market as well as ... situation analysis. The report on the Chinese ...
(Date:10/31/2014)... 31, 2014  Tavistock Development Co. (TDC), a ... celebrated the groundbreaking of the GuideWell Innovation Center ... The 92,000-square-foot, three-story facility is the first ... designed specifically for life sciences, health innovation, ... the 650-acre Lake Nona Medical City, near the ...
(Date:10/30/2014)... October 29, 2014 Global polyvinyl chloride ... world economic crisis during 2008-2009, especially in North America ... and currently is keeping to a growing trend. , ... is utilized in the construction segment. In 2013, the ... profiles, tubing, sheets and rigid film. Moreover, the PVC ...
(Date:10/30/2014)... James Sherley says he has been working towards ... technology since his days as a principal investigator at the ... 1990’s. Sherley founded the ASCTC as a new Boston ... intellectual property developed in Sherley’s research over the years since ... Technology (MIT), and more recently as a senior scientist at ...
Breaking Biology Technology:Biocides Market for International & Chinese Regional Development Analysis Now Available at DeepResearchReports.com 2Biocides Market for International & Chinese Regional Development Analysis Now Available at DeepResearchReports.com 3GuideWell Innovation Center Groundbreaking Hosted by Tavistock Development Company at Lake Nona Medical City 2GuideWell Innovation Center Groundbreaking Hosted by Tavistock Development Company at Lake Nona Medical City 3Global Polyvinyl Chloride Demand Is on Upward Trend Now, Says Merchant Research & Consulting in Its Topical Study 2Global Polyvinyl Chloride Demand Is on Upward Trend Now, Says Merchant Research & Consulting in Its Topical Study 3Boston’s Adult Stem Cell Technology Center, LLC Introduces A New Technology for Monitoring Previously Elusive Adult Stem Cells 2Boston’s Adult Stem Cell Technology Center, LLC Introduces A New Technology for Monitoring Previously Elusive Adult Stem Cells 3Boston’s Adult Stem Cell Technology Center, LLC Introduces A New Technology for Monitoring Previously Elusive Adult Stem Cells 4
Cached News: