HOME >> BIOLOGY >> NEWS
22-amino acid bacterium created by Scripps scientists

bosome, into a protein. The ribosome requires the help of transfer RNA molecules (tRNA) that have been "loaded" with an amino acid, and that requires the help of a "loading" enzyme.

Each tRNA recognizes one specific three-base combination, or "codon," on the mRNA and gets loaded with only the one amino acid that is specific for that codon.

During protein synthesis, the tRNA specific for the next codon on the mRNA comes in loaded with the right amino acid, and the ribosome grabs the amino acid and attaches it to the growing protein chain.

The redundancy of the genetic code comes from the fact that there are more codons than there are amino acids used. In fact, there are 4x4x4 = 64 different possible ways to make a codon -- or any three-digit combination of four letters in the mRNA (UAG, ACG, UCC, etc.). With only 20 amino acids used by the organisms, not all of the codons are theoretically necessary.

But nature uses them anyway. Several of the 64 codons are redundant, coding for the same amino acid, and three of them are nonsense codons -- they don't code for any amino acid at all.

These nonsense codons are useful because normally when a ribosome that is synthesizing a protein reaches a nonsense codon, the ribosome dissociates from the mRNA and synthesis stops. Hence, nonsense codons are also referred to as "stop" codons. One of these, the amber stop codon UAG, played an important role in Schultz's research.

Schultz and his colleagues knew that if they could provide their cells with a tRNA molecule that recognizes UAG and also provide them with a synthetase "loading" enzyme that loaded the tRNA with an unnatural amino acid, the scientists would have a way to site-specifically insert the unusual amino acid into any protein they wanted.

They needed to find a functionally "orthogonal" paira tRNA/synthetase pair that react with each other but not with endogenous E. coli pairs. So they devised a
'"/>

Contact: Jason Bardi
jasonb@scripps.edu
858-784-9254
Scripps Research Institute
11-May-2004


Page: 1 2 3 4 5

Related biology news :

1. Environmental decontamination, greenhouse gases, and the genome of a methane-loving bacterium
2. Genetically modified bacterium as remedy for intestinal diseases
3. Male-killer bacteriums genome is deciphered
4. Male-targeting bacteriums genome is deciphered
5. Scientists decode DNA of bacterium that cleans up uranium contamination and generates electricity
6. Scientists decipher genome of bacterium that remediates uranium contamination, generates electricity
7. Scientists find key to ocean bacterium that helps control greenhouse gas
8. Novel bacterium detoxifies chlorinated pollutants
9. Fighting Mycobacterium tuberculosis with structural proteomics
10. Genetic blueprint for Q fever bacterium unveiled
11. With toxic crystals, bacterium targets - and takes out nematodes

Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
TAG: amino acid bacterium created Scripps scientists

(Date:7/31/2015)... de julho de 2015 A 10 a. ... será realizada pela BGI de 22-25 de outubro de 2015, ... A conferência está celebrando seu 10 o. aniversário ... se tornou uma das reuniões mais influentes do mundo ... mais dinâmicos, entusiastas e prazerosos. A ...
(Date:7/31/2015)... 2015 La 10 th International Conference on ... BGI del 22 al 25 de octubre de 2015 en ... la conferencia celebra su décimo aniversario. Desde su inauguración en ... las reuniones anuales más influyentes del mundo en el campo ... entusiastas y mejores a nivel científico. ICG-10 ...
(Date:7/31/2015)... --NXT-ID, Inc. (NASDAQ: NXTD ) ("NXT-ID" or the ... mobile commerce market and creator of the Wocket® smart ... for ELECTRONIC CRYPTO-CURRENCY MANAGEMENT METHOD AND SYSTEM ... crypto-currencies such as Bitcoin into the consumer market of ... manage all payments.  The technology manages ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):A 10a. Conferência Internacional sobre Genômica (ICG-10) será em outubro 2A 10a. Conferência Internacional sobre Genômica (ICG-10) será em outubro 3La 10th International Conference on Genomics (ICG-10) se llevará a cabo en octubre 2La 10th International Conference on Genomics (ICG-10) se llevará a cabo en octubre 3NXT-ID Patents Electronic Crypto-Currency Management Technology 2NXT-ID Patents Electronic Crypto-Currency Management Technology 3NXT-ID Patents Electronic Crypto-Currency Management Technology 4
(Date:8/28/2015)... ... August 28, 2015 , ... Riordan-McKenna Institute ... DO, announced today that the use of sterile, dehydrated amniotic tissue AlphaPATCH™ developed ... an otherwise non-healing surgical knee wound. , The case involved a 78-year-old male, ...
(Date:8/27/2015)... ... 27, 2015 , ... The Kansas City Animal Health Investment ... health companies to hear from animal health companies with the newest technology. Companies ... agreements or distribution contracts. This meeting is one of the only investment ...
(Date:8/27/2015)... Mich. , Aug. 27, 2015  Neogen Corporation ... acquired the stock of United Kingdom ... of microbiological culture media and diagnostic systems. ... grown into a leading provider of microbial testing and ... clinical testing markets. The company currently sells into more ...
(Date:8/27/2015)... CELEBRATION, Fla. , Aug. 27, 2015 ... announced that a patient,s eyes—and life—were saved by doctors ... , working with NNFF, NovaBay Pharmaceuticals and Dr. ... Wound Care Center at Seton Medical Center in ... The successful treatment used a breakthrough approach, pioneered by ...
Breaking Biology Technology:Dallas-Fort Worth Stem Cell Researchers Use Amniotic Tissue To Successfully Treat Non-Healing Surgical Wound 2Dallas-Fort Worth Stem Cell Researchers Use Amniotic Tissue To Successfully Treat Non-Healing Surgical Wound 3Dallas-Fort Worth Stem Cell Researchers Use Amniotic Tissue To Successfully Treat Non-Healing Surgical Wound 4VetStem Biopharma, Inc. Among Seventeen Companies Selected to Present at the KC Animal Health Investment Forum on September 1st 2015 2VetStem Biopharma, Inc. Among Seventeen Companies Selected to Present at the KC Animal Health Investment Forum on September 1st 2015 3Neogen acquires U.K.-based Lab M Holdings 2Patient's Life and Eyes Saved from Gruesome Flesh-Eating Infection Consuming Her Face 2Patient's Life and Eyes Saved from Gruesome Flesh-Eating Infection Consuming Her Face 3
Cached News: