22-amino acid bacterium created by Scripps scientists

bosome, into a protein. The ribosome requires the help of transfer RNA molecules (tRNA) that have been "loaded" with an amino acid, and that requires the help of a "loading" enzyme.

Each tRNA recognizes one specific three-base combination, or "codon," on the mRNA and gets loaded with only the one amino acid that is specific for that codon.

During protein synthesis, the tRNA specific for the next codon on the mRNA comes in loaded with the right amino acid, and the ribosome grabs the amino acid and attaches it to the growing protein chain.

The redundancy of the genetic code comes from the fact that there are more codons than there are amino acids used. In fact, there are 4x4x4 = 64 different possible ways to make a codon -- or any three-digit combination of four letters in the mRNA (UAG, ACG, UCC, etc.). With only 20 amino acids used by the organisms, not all of the codons are theoretically necessary.

But nature uses them anyway. Several of the 64 codons are redundant, coding for the same amino acid, and three of them are nonsense codons -- they don't code for any amino acid at all.

These nonsense codons are useful because normally when a ribosome that is synthesizing a protein reaches a nonsense codon, the ribosome dissociates from the mRNA and synthesis stops. Hence, nonsense codons are also referred to as "stop" codons. One of these, the amber stop codon UAG, played an important role in Schultz's research.

Schultz and his colleagues knew that if they could provide their cells with a tRNA molecule that recognizes UAG and also provide them with a synthetase "loading" enzyme that loaded the tRNA with an unnatural amino acid, the scientists would have a way to site-specifically insert the unusual amino acid into any protein they wanted.

They needed to find a functionally "orthogonal" paira tRNA/synthetase pair that react with each other but not with endogenous E. coli pairs. So they devised a

Contact: Jason Bardi
Scripps Research Institute

Page: 1 2 3 4 5

Related biology news :

1. Environmental decontamination, greenhouse gases, and the genome of a methane-loving bacterium
2. Genetically modified bacterium as remedy for intestinal diseases
3. Male-killer bacteriums genome is deciphered
4. Male-targeting bacteriums genome is deciphered
5. Scientists decode DNA of bacterium that cleans up uranium contamination and generates electricity
6. Scientists decipher genome of bacterium that remediates uranium contamination, generates electricity
7. Scientists find key to ocean bacterium that helps control greenhouse gas
8. Novel bacterium detoxifies chlorinated pollutants
9. Fighting Mycobacterium tuberculosis with structural proteomics
10. Genetic blueprint for Q fever bacterium unveiled
11. With toxic crystals, bacterium targets - and takes out nematodes

Post Your Comments:

(Date:11/17/2015)... EASTON, Mass. , Nov. 17, 2015 ... a leader in the development and sale of broadly ... the worldwide life sciences industry, today announced it has ... of its $5 million Private Placement (the "Offering"), increasing ... to $4,025,000.  One or more additional closings are expected ...
(Date:11/12/2015)... BOSTON , Nov. 12, 2015  A golden ... for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) has provided a new ... Boston Children,s Hospital, the Broad Institute of MIT and ... Brazil . Cell, ... some dogs "escape" the disease,s effects. The Boston Children,s ...
(Date:11/12/2015)... , Nov. 11, 2015   Growing ... reliable analytical tools has been paving the way ... qualitative determination of discrete analytes in clinical, agricultural, ... are being predominantly used in medical applications, however, ... environmental sectors due to continuous emphasis on improving ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):
(Date:11/23/2015)... Nov. 24, 2015 Women with a certain type ... face a higher risk of lung cancer than men with ... week at the annual meeting of the Radiological Society of ... --> --> Lung nodules are small ... solid or subsolid based on their appearance on CT. Solid ...
(Date:11/23/2015)... 2015 China Cord Blood Corporation (NYSE: ... of cord blood collection, laboratory testing, hematopoietic stem cell ... preliminary unaudited financial results for the second quarter and ... 2015. --> --> ... for the second quarter of fiscal 2016 increased by ...
(Date:11/23/2015)... Church, VA (PRWEB) , ... November 23, 2015 , ... ... Ellen McCarthy , former Director, Plans and Programs, National Geospatial Intelligence Agency (NGA), has ... to us with an incredibly distinguished career in the intelligence community and the private ...
(Date:11/23/2015)... and PISCATAWAY, New Jersey ... Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre (CCDC) announces the ... Structural Database (CSD) and the CSD-System, now complemented ... worldwide: CSD-Discovery to support the discovery of new ... and CSD-Enterprise, the complete set of the CCDC,s ...
Breaking Biology Technology:
Cached News: