HOME >> BIOLOGY >> NEWS
22-amino acid bacterium created by Scripps scientists

bosome, into a protein. The ribosome requires the help of transfer RNA molecules (tRNA) that have been "loaded" with an amino acid, and that requires the help of a "loading" enzyme.

Each tRNA recognizes one specific three-base combination, or "codon," on the mRNA and gets loaded with only the one amino acid that is specific for that codon.

During protein synthesis, the tRNA specific for the next codon on the mRNA comes in loaded with the right amino acid, and the ribosome grabs the amino acid and attaches it to the growing protein chain.

The redundancy of the genetic code comes from the fact that there are more codons than there are amino acids used. In fact, there are 4x4x4 = 64 different possible ways to make a codon -- or any three-digit combination of four letters in the mRNA (UAG, ACG, UCC, etc.). With only 20 amino acids used by the organisms, not all of the codons are theoretically necessary.

But nature uses them anyway. Several of the 64 codons are redundant, coding for the same amino acid, and three of them are nonsense codons -- they don't code for any amino acid at all.

These nonsense codons are useful because normally when a ribosome that is synthesizing a protein reaches a nonsense codon, the ribosome dissociates from the mRNA and synthesis stops. Hence, nonsense codons are also referred to as "stop" codons. One of these, the amber stop codon UAG, played an important role in Schultz's research.

Schultz and his colleagues knew that if they could provide their cells with a tRNA molecule that recognizes UAG and also provide them with a synthetase "loading" enzyme that loaded the tRNA with an unnatural amino acid, the scientists would have a way to site-specifically insert the unusual amino acid into any protein they wanted.

They needed to find a functionally "orthogonal" paira tRNA/synthetase pair that react with each other but not with endogenous E. coli pairs. So they devised a
'"/>

Contact: Jason Bardi
jasonb@scripps.edu
858-784-9254
Scripps Research Institute
11-May-2004


Page: 1 2 3 4 5

Related biology news :

1. Environmental decontamination, greenhouse gases, and the genome of a methane-loving bacterium
2. Genetically modified bacterium as remedy for intestinal diseases
3. Male-killer bacteriums genome is deciphered
4. Male-targeting bacteriums genome is deciphered
5. Scientists decode DNA of bacterium that cleans up uranium contamination and generates electricity
6. Scientists decipher genome of bacterium that remediates uranium contamination, generates electricity
7. Scientists find key to ocean bacterium that helps control greenhouse gas
8. Novel bacterium detoxifies chlorinated pollutants
9. Fighting Mycobacterium tuberculosis with structural proteomics
10. Genetic blueprint for Q fever bacterium unveiled
11. With toxic crystals, bacterium targets - and takes out nematodes

Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
TAG: amino acid bacterium created Scripps scientists

(Date:6/23/2015)...   Valencell, a leader in performance ... recent study that illustrates its PerformTek biometric technology ... In a study conducted at Valencell,s Biometric Lab, ... Apple Watch against a chest strap – the ... The study demonstrated that Valencell,s biometric technology delivers ...
(Date:6/18/2015)... 2015 This report analyzes the worldwide markets ... Product Segments, which includes Immunoassay Analyzers and Reagents: Enzyme ... Immunoassay Systems, and Nephelometric Immunoassay Systems. The report provides ... , Japan , ... Latin America , and Rest of World. ...
(Date:6/17/2015)... HILDEN , Deutschland und GERMANTOWN, Maryland ... Investigator ®   Produktlinie mit ... QIAGEN N.V. (NASDAQ: QGEN ; Frankfurt Prime ... neue STR-Testkits der Produktlinie Investigator ... DNA-Spuren in den Markt eingeführt. Die neuen Kits zur ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):Valencell Delivers Breakthrough Heart Rate Accuracy on the Wrist 2Valencell Delivers Breakthrough Heart Rate Accuracy on the Wrist 3Global Immunoassay Systems Market 2Global Immunoassay Systems Market 3Global Immunoassay Systems Market 4Global Immunoassay Systems Market 5Global Immunoassay Systems Market 6Global Immunoassay Systems Market 7Global Immunoassay Systems Market 8Global Immunoassay Systems Market 9Global Immunoassay Systems Market 10Global Immunoassay Systems Market 11Global Immunoassay Systems Market 12Global Immunoassay Systems Market 13Global Immunoassay Systems Market 14Global Immunoassay Systems Market 15Global Immunoassay Systems Market 16Global Immunoassay Systems Market 17Global Immunoassay Systems Market 18Global Immunoassay Systems Market 19Global Immunoassay Systems Market 20Global Immunoassay Systems Market 21Global Immunoassay Systems Market 22Global Immunoassay Systems Market 23Global Immunoassay Systems Market 24Global Immunoassay Systems Market 25Global Immunoassay Systems Market 26Global Immunoassay Systems Market 27Global Immunoassay Systems Market 28Global Immunoassay Systems Market 29QIAGEN bringt in den USA neue Kits für die forensische DNA-Analyse auf den Markt 2QIAGEN bringt in den USA neue Kits für die forensische DNA-Analyse auf den Markt 3QIAGEN bringt in den USA neue Kits für die forensische DNA-Analyse auf den Markt 4QIAGEN bringt in den USA neue Kits für die forensische DNA-Analyse auf den Markt 5QIAGEN bringt in den USA neue Kits für die forensische DNA-Analyse auf den Markt 6
(Date:7/2/2015)... ... , ... Cuvettes have been used in countless labs for decades. In the past, people ... As expected, this was a daunting and tiring process looking at endless data tables ... able to navigate the complex catalog structure. , Now thanks to FireflySci, scientists are throwing ...
(Date:7/2/2015)... ... July 02, 2015 , ... In’Tech Medical ... instruments in Orthopedics, announced today the acquisition of Turner Medical, Inc ., ... of surgical instruments to the Spine Industry. The acquisition of Turner Medical ideally ...
(Date:7/1/2015)... India , July 1, 2015  Strand Life ... generation sequencing technology to empower cancer care, today announced ... chief executive officer. In his expanded role as now ... strategy, business expansion and worldwide operations effective immediately.  Dr. ... chairman and CEO since its founding in 2000, will ...
(Date:7/1/2015)... , July 1, 2015 InferMed ... technology will ... evidence-based clinical s olutions suite   ... and medical information products and services, announced today the acquisition ... decision support (CDS) technology company. InferMed,s Arezzo technology ...
Breaking Biology Technology:New Cuvette E-Commerce Website Launched by FireflySci 2In'Tech Medical Acquires Turner Medical to Become a World Leader in Orthopedic Contract-Manufacturing 2In'Tech Medical Acquires Turner Medical to Become a World Leader in Orthopedic Contract-Manufacturing 3Strand Life Sciences Names Scott A. Storrer CEO as Company Continues Global Expansion with Focus on Precision Medicine Product 2Strand Life Sciences Names Scott A. Storrer CEO as Company Continues Global Expansion with Focus on Precision Medicine Product 3Elsevier Acquires InferMed, Provider of Clinical Decision Support Technology 2Elsevier Acquires InferMed, Provider of Clinical Decision Support Technology 3Elsevier Acquires InferMed, Provider of Clinical Decision Support Technology 4
Cached News: