HOME >> BIOLOGY >> NEWS
22-amino acid bacterium created by Scripps scientists

bosome, into a protein. The ribosome requires the help of transfer RNA molecules (tRNA) that have been "loaded" with an amino acid, and that requires the help of a "loading" enzyme.

Each tRNA recognizes one specific three-base combination, or "codon," on the mRNA and gets loaded with only the one amino acid that is specific for that codon.

During protein synthesis, the tRNA specific for the next codon on the mRNA comes in loaded with the right amino acid, and the ribosome grabs the amino acid and attaches it to the growing protein chain.

The redundancy of the genetic code comes from the fact that there are more codons than there are amino acids used. In fact, there are 4x4x4 = 64 different possible ways to make a codon -- or any three-digit combination of four letters in the mRNA (UAG, ACG, UCC, etc.). With only 20 amino acids used by the organisms, not all of the codons are theoretically necessary.

But nature uses them anyway. Several of the 64 codons are redundant, coding for the same amino acid, and three of them are nonsense codons -- they don't code for any amino acid at all.

These nonsense codons are useful because normally when a ribosome that is synthesizing a protein reaches a nonsense codon, the ribosome dissociates from the mRNA and synthesis stops. Hence, nonsense codons are also referred to as "stop" codons. One of these, the amber stop codon UAG, played an important role in Schultz's research.

Schultz and his colleagues knew that if they could provide their cells with a tRNA molecule that recognizes UAG and also provide them with a synthetase "loading" enzyme that loaded the tRNA with an unnatural amino acid, the scientists would have a way to site-specifically insert the unusual amino acid into any protein they wanted.

They needed to find a functionally "orthogonal" paira tRNA/synthetase pair that react with each other but not with endogenous E. coli pairs. So they devised a
'"/>

Contact: Jason Bardi
jasonb@scripps.edu
858-784-9254
Scripps Research Institute
11-May-2004


Page: 1 2 3 4 5

Related biology news :

1. Environmental decontamination, greenhouse gases, and the genome of a methane-loving bacterium
2. Genetically modified bacterium as remedy for intestinal diseases
3. Male-killer bacteriums genome is deciphered
4. Male-targeting bacteriums genome is deciphered
5. Scientists decode DNA of bacterium that cleans up uranium contamination and generates electricity
6. Scientists decipher genome of bacterium that remediates uranium contamination, generates electricity
7. Scientists find key to ocean bacterium that helps control greenhouse gas
8. Novel bacterium detoxifies chlorinated pollutants
9. Fighting Mycobacterium tuberculosis with structural proteomics
10. Genetic blueprint for Q fever bacterium unveiled
11. With toxic crystals, bacterium targets - and takes out nematodes

Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:


(Date:3/23/2016)... , March 23, 2016 ... erhöhter Sicherheit Gesichts- und Stimmerkennung mit Passwörtern ... (NASDAQ: MESG ), ein führender ... das Unternehmen mit SpeechPro zusammenarbeitet, um erstmals ... Finanzdienstleistungsbranche, wird die Möglichkeit angeboten, im Rahmen ...
(Date:3/18/2016)... , March 18, 2016 --> ... of Biometrics, ICT, Manned & Unmanned Vehicles, Physical infrastructure and ... security companies in the border security market and the continuing ... and Europe has led visiongain to ... improved success. --> defence & security companies ...
(Date:3/14/2016)... MELBOURNE, Florida , March 14, 2016 ... on the growing mobile commerce market, announces the airing of ... York channels starting the week of March 21 st . ... and CNBC, including its popular Squawk on the Street show. ... company focused on the growing mobile commerce market, announces the ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):
(Date:5/25/2016)... ... May 25, 2016 , ... Founder of the Fitzmaurice ... surgery and surgery of the hand by the National Board of Physicians and ... above and beyond in his pursuit of providing the most comprehensive, effective treatment ...
(Date:5/25/2016)... (PRWEB) , ... May 25, 2016 , ... ... U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has granted the company’s orphan drug designation ... company’s second orphan drug designation granted by the FDA. , Spinocerebellar ataxia ...
(Date:5/23/2016)... Antonio, Texas (PRWEB) , ... May 23, 2016 , ... The need for blood donations ... released this week by the South Texas Blood & Tissue Center, blood donations are on ... than 30 years, and they are down 21 percent in South Texas in the last ...
(Date:5/23/2016)... ... May 23, 2016 , ... ... and services based in Aurora, Ohio, has broken ground on a new building ... Research Triangle Park area, this new location solidifies a commitment to business in ...
Breaking Biology Technology:
Cached News: