The animals were taken from an area called the East Pacific Rise, which is 400 miles south of Manzanilla, Mexico. They were living at a depth of a mile and a half below the surface.
At that depth, the ocean is very dark and cold and the worms and mussels survive by chemosynthesis. They convert hydrogen sulfide from the vents as an energy source (instead of light) for the synthesis of proteins and carbohydrates. In the tanks they are being provided with hydrogen sulfide, which is poisonous to most forms of life. The crabs are eating pieces of squid.
The animals, which have been on campus for about six weeks, are being studied to understand their physiology and what conditions they need to stay alive.
Currently they are being kept at seven degrees centigrade. The deep sea where they lived is about two degrees centigrade, or just above freezing. At UC Santa Barbara, they are being kept in special tanks that provide 3,000 pounds of pressure. Scientists can view the animals through small portholes.
To collect the animals, Childress went down to the deep sea vents in a three-person submersible called Alvin. The deep sea vents are like hot springs, and are located in areas where the Earths tectonic plates are moving and there is volcanic activity. Rock is fractured and water seeps down, is changed chemically, and then shoots up through vents of various sizes.
Contact: Gail Gallessich Brown
University of California - Santa Barbara