Extreme stretch-growth of axons


These extreme rates of growth are not consistent with the current understanding of the limitations of axon growth. "Proteins necessary to sustain this growth are somehow correctly brought to sites along the axon faster than conceivable rates of transport," notes Smith. The team suggests two possible mechanisms to explain this: increasing transport to a very fast rate or making the necessary proteins at the site, proximal to the growing axons. Smith believes that this form of growth commonly occurs in nature. "For example, it can be inferred that axons in a blue whale's spine grow more than three centimeters a day and in a giraffe's neck at two centimeters a day at peak growth."

The team also found that they had to condition the axons to grow in an extreme way. "Although they can handle enormous growth, you can't just spring it on them," explains Bryan Pfister, PhD a post-doctoral fellow in Smith's lab and coauthor of the study. "If we ramp up the stretch rate too fast, the axons will snap." From this the team surmises that in nature animals must grow at a metered pace, which allows for constant feedback and conditioning.

It has been well established that axons initially grow out from neurons and follow a chemical stimulus to connect with another neuron. However, once the axon has reached its target a relatively unknown form of stretch-growth must ensue as the animal grows. Mechanical changes in the growing brain, spine, and other bones are the starting point for natural stretch-growth in axons. "We know that it's not tension on the neuron itself, but tension on the axon," says Smith. "It's deformation, a pulling on the axon." At this point, it is unclear what receptors and cell signaling pathways are involved to get the process started, but from this and previous studies the investigators do report that the signal is from a mechanical stimulus along the length of the axon as opposed to a chemical stimulus. "The stretch is coming from

Contact: Karen Kreeger
University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine

Page: 1 2 3

Related biology news :

1. Extreme 2003 takes students worldwide to the oceans depth
2. Extreme climate variance sped extinction of local butterfly populations, researchers say
3. For First Time In 40 Years National Jewish Researchers Report Chronic Beryllium Disease Caused By Extremely Low Levels Of Exposure
4. The Fire Down Below: Extreme Heat-Loving Organisms May Be Keys To Molecular Evolution, Origin Of Life, New Book Argues
5. Virginia Tech Scientists Studying Cells From Extreme Environments
6. Plakin proteins brace nerve axons and allow for the transport of neurotransmitter vesicles

Post Your Comments:

(Date:10/29/2015)... Oct. 29, 2015 Daon, a global leader ... has released a new version of its IdentityX ... North America have already installed IdentityX ... includes a FIDO UAF certified server component ... to activate FIDO features. These customers include some of ...
(Date:10/27/2015)... 27, 2015 In the present market scenario, ... for various industry verticals such as banking, healthcare, defense, ... growing demand for secure & simplified access control and ... as hacking of bank accounts, misuse of users, , ... as PC,s, laptops, and smartphones are expected to provide ...
(Date:10/26/2015)... NEWARK, Calif. , Oct. 26, 2015  Delta ... convenient biometric authentication to mobile and PC devices, announced ... Fujitsu,s smartphone, the arrows NX F-02H launched by NTT ... arrows NX F-02H is the second smartphone to include ... this technology in ARROWS NX F-04G in May 2015, ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):
(Date:11/27/2015)... 2015 --> ... companion diagnostics is one of the major ... pharmaceutical companies and diagnostic manufacturers working together ... http://www.rnrmarketresearch.com/global-cancer-biomarkers-market-2015-2019-market-report.html . --> http://www.rnrmarketresearch.com/global-cancer-biomarkers-market-2015-2019-market-report.html ... global cancer biomarkers market spread across 89 ...
(Date:11/25/2015)... 26, 2015 --> ... 2016 - 2020 report analyzes that automating biobanking ... quality in long-term samples, minimizing manual errors, improving ... minimizes manual errors such as mislabeling or inaccurate ... it plays a vital role in blood fractionation, ...
(Date:11/25/2015)... Studies reveal the differences in ... pave the way for more effective treatment for one of ...   --> --> Gum ... in cats, yet relatively little was understood about the bacteria ... been conducted by researchers from the WALTHAM Centre for Pet ...
(Date:11/25/2015)... QUEBEC CITY , Nov. 25, 2015 /PRNewswire/ ... "Company"), affirms that its business and prospects remain ... , Zoptrex™ (zoptarelin doxorubicin) recently received DSMB ... program to completion following review of the final ... met Phase 2 Primary Endpoint in men with ...
Breaking Biology Technology:
Cached News: