Clustering apparently allows resistance genes to recombine in order to face the ever-evolving attacks of pathogens, says North Carolina State University's Dr. Ralph Dean, professor of plant pathology, director of the Center for Integrated Fungal Research and co-author of a new research paper that describes the sequencing of the rice genome's chromosome 10. The paper appears in the June 6 issue of the journal Science.
Learning more about a plant's defense mechanisms how it recognizes and fights the mutating pathogens can help save crops like rice, the major food staple for about half the world's population, from pathogen attack.
Dean and an NC State colleague, Hua-Quin Pan, senior bioinformatics scientist, searched for and characterized resistance genes and downstream pathways likely involved in the resistance response.
Dean and Pan found 43 different resistance genes on chromosome 10, which contains a total of 3,471 genes, according to the Science paper.
"We found a variety of different types of resistance genes; some were novel and some were well known," Dean says. "The most interesting thing was that most were grouped in three major clusters that were quite similar."
Dean believes this clustering helps rice improve its specificity of resistance to pathogens. In other words, resistance genes form clusters and then recombine forces in order to repel specific harmful advances from pathogens.
Dean says finding out more about these resistance genes' functions will aid the rice plant's battle to defend itself.
"Identifying and characterizing these resistance genes particularly these clusters will give us a very good idea of how they change their specificities to different pathogens, specifically rice blast."'"/>