HOME >> BIOLOGY >> NEWS
HIV reveals evolution of a primate defense against intragenomic infiltrators

Published this week on-line in PLoS Biology, Sara Sawyer, Michael Emerman, and Harmit Malik investigate the genetic roots of the battle for evolutionary advantage between HIV-type viruses and the hosts they infect. What they find is surprising.

The gene, APOBEC3G, belongs to a family of primate genes that produce enzymes (in this case, APOBEC3G) that "edit" DNA and RNA, by slipping into viral particles and inducing mutations that replace one base (cytosine) with another (uracil) as the virus undergoes reverse transcription in the host cell's cytoplasm. The edited virus fails to replicate. HIV, in turn, generates a protein called Vif that binds to the APOBEC3G enzyme and targets it for degradation, thereby eliminating its antiviral activity.

Since the protein-binding regions that govern these interactions have a direct effect on the fitness of both virus and host, one would expect to see the proteins angling for advantage, with Vif maximizing its ability to recognize APOBEC3G and APOBEC3G doing its best to evade Vif. Such battles are thought to result in frequent mutations that alter the amino acids involved in the interaction; the perpetuation of such advantageous mutations is called positive selection.

As predicted, the APOBEC3G gene is under strong positive selection. But that selection characterized by an analysis of twelve primates species spanning 33 million years of evolution - appears to predate the existence of HIV-type viruses. So, what has been fueling APOBEC3G's rapid evolution?

APOBEC3G and Vif interact in T-cells, but the fact that selective pressure on APOBEC3G has been constant over the course of primate evolution suggests that another force is also acting on the gene. Sawyer et al. propose that this force is exerted by human endogenous retroviruses, which act in many ways like foreign retroviruses. These mobile genetic elements emanating from one's own genome pose less of an immediate threat than a retrovirus like
'"/>

Contact: Catriona MacCallum
cmaccallum@plos.org
44-122-349-4488
Public Library of Science
20-Jul-2004


Page: 1 2

Related biology news :

1. Hidden diversity: DNA barcoding reveals a common butterfly is actually 10 different species
2. Brown research reveals key insight into memory-making
3. Study reveals why eyes in some paintings seem to follow viewers
4. New dye directly reveals activated proteins in living cells
5. Study reveals first genetic step necessary for prostate cancer growth
6. Study of flu patients reveals virus outsmarting key drug
7. Study in Science reveals recreational fishing takes big bite of ocean catch
8. Plumbing trees plumbing reveals their engineering skill
9. New survey reveals insights into unique relationship between mothers and pediatricians
10. Study reveals surprising remodeling property of gene regulation process
11. UCI study reveals gene linked to breast cancer can suppress tumors

Post Your Comments:
(Date:5/19/2015)... 19, 2015 Research ... addition of the  "Genetic Testing Market Outlook ... http://photos.prnewswire.com/prnh/20130307/600769) , ,A recent report, Genetic Testing ... of the current and future genetic testing ... their working principles and types are covered ...
(Date:5/14/2015)... 2015 Research and Markets ( http://www.researchandmarkets.com/research/5whpxg/fingerprint ... Sensors Market in Smart Mobile Devices " report ... 2014 was a watershed year for fingerprint sensors in ... Pay,. Apple gave fingerprint sensors a raison d,etre in ... sensors are a must-have feature in flagship smartphones. ...
(Date:5/11/2015)... 11, 2015  Synaptics Incorporated (NASDAQ: SYNA ... today announced the appointment of Wajid Ali ... Officer, reporting to Rick Bergman , President ... Financial Officer, Kathleen Bayless , who announced ... Mr. Ali brings extensive financial management expertise to ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):Global Genetic Testing Market Outlook 2018 2Global Smart Mobile Devices Fingerprint Sensors Market 2015-2019: Key Vendors are Authentec, Validity Sensors, Fingerprint Cards, Next Biometrics Group. IDEX, and Qualcomm 2Synaptics Appoints Wajid Ali as Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer 2
(Date:5/29/2015)... Delcath Systems, Inc. (NASDAQ: DCTH ... focused on oncology with an emphasis on the ... that results of a large, European single-center experience ... hepatic metastases with the Delcath Hepatic CHEMOSAT ® ... abstract at the American Society of Clinical Oncology ...
(Date:5/29/2015)... , May 28, 2015 Research and ... of Jain PharmaBiotech,s new report "Cytogenetics - ... This report deals with cytogenetics in ... mainly to describe the chromosome structure and identify ... molecular biology, it is also referred to as ...
(Date:5/29/2015)... Translation is frequently listed as one of the ways ... in a way that is right for a company, translation ... or service offering. , Here are some of the ... a company's bottom line: , 1.    Attract bigger audience. , With ... use, why not offer it globally? Nelson Mandela once said: ...
(Date:5/28/2015)... , May 28, 2015 ... ) has announced the addition of ... - Technologies, Markets and Companies"  to ... ,This report describes and evaluates animal ... medicine and pharmaceuticals as well as ...
Breaking Biology Technology:Positive Data With Delcath's CHEMOSAT Highlighted At ASCO 2015 2Positive Data With Delcath's CHEMOSAT Highlighted At ASCO 2015 3Positive Data With Delcath's CHEMOSAT Highlighted At ASCO 2015 4Positive Data With Delcath's CHEMOSAT Highlighted At ASCO 2015 5Global Cytogenetics Market Report 2015-2024 - Technologies, Markets and Companies 2Global Cytogenetics Market Report 2015-2024 - Technologies, Markets and Companies 3Three Ways Translation Can Help Businesses Grow 2Global Animal Biotechnology Report 2015 - Technologies, Markets and Companies Analysis to 2024 2Global Animal Biotechnology Report 2015 - Technologies, Markets and Companies Analysis to 2024 3
Cached News: