HOME >> BIOLOGY >> NEWS
HIV reveals evolution of a primate defense against intragenomic infiltrators

Published this week on-line in PLoS Biology, Sara Sawyer, Michael Emerman, and Harmit Malik investigate the genetic roots of the battle for evolutionary advantage between HIV-type viruses and the hosts they infect. What they find is surprising.

The gene, APOBEC3G, belongs to a family of primate genes that produce enzymes (in this case, APOBEC3G) that "edit" DNA and RNA, by slipping into viral particles and inducing mutations that replace one base (cytosine) with another (uracil) as the virus undergoes reverse transcription in the host cell's cytoplasm. The edited virus fails to replicate. HIV, in turn, generates a protein called Vif that binds to the APOBEC3G enzyme and targets it for degradation, thereby eliminating its antiviral activity.

Since the protein-binding regions that govern these interactions have a direct effect on the fitness of both virus and host, one would expect to see the proteins angling for advantage, with Vif maximizing its ability to recognize APOBEC3G and APOBEC3G doing its best to evade Vif. Such battles are thought to result in frequent mutations that alter the amino acids involved in the interaction; the perpetuation of such advantageous mutations is called positive selection.

As predicted, the APOBEC3G gene is under strong positive selection. But that selection characterized by an analysis of twelve primates species spanning 33 million years of evolution - appears to predate the existence of HIV-type viruses. So, what has been fueling APOBEC3G's rapid evolution?

APOBEC3G and Vif interact in T-cells, but the fact that selective pressure on APOBEC3G has been constant over the course of primate evolution suggests that another force is also acting on the gene. Sawyer et al. propose that this force is exerted by human endogenous retroviruses, which act in many ways like foreign retroviruses. These mobile genetic elements emanating from one's own genome pose less of an immediate threat than a retrovirus like
'"/>

Contact: Catriona MacCallum
cmaccallum@plos.org
44-122-349-4488
Public Library of Science
20-Jul-2004


Page: 1 2

Related biology news :

1. Hidden diversity: DNA barcoding reveals a common butterfly is actually 10 different species
2. Brown research reveals key insight into memory-making
3. Study reveals why eyes in some paintings seem to follow viewers
4. New dye directly reveals activated proteins in living cells
5. Study reveals first genetic step necessary for prostate cancer growth
6. Study of flu patients reveals virus outsmarting key drug
7. Study in Science reveals recreational fishing takes big bite of ocean catch
8. Plumbing trees plumbing reveals their engineering skill
9. New survey reveals insights into unique relationship between mothers and pediatricians
10. Study reveals surprising remodeling property of gene regulation process
11. UCI study reveals gene linked to breast cancer can suppress tumors

Post Your Comments:
(Date:3/20/2015)... , March 20, 2015 NXT-ID, Inc. ... biometric authentication company focused on the growing mobile commerce ... wallet is one of the products featured in 2015 ... 20th at 11:00 PM EST on the DIY Network. ... Las Vegas , site of the ...
(Date:3/19/2015)... Inc. (NASDAQ: NXTD ) ("NXT-ID" or the "Company"), ... market, announces its biometric payment technology, the Wocket® smart wallet ... on Washington DC,s Fox 5 News ... Next Great Thing", host Laura Evans calls the ... really big breakthrough in mobile payment.,  Award-winning ...
(Date:3/17/2015)... Minn. , March 17, 2015 ... technology company specializing in clinical study management systems, ... be in attendance at ARENA,s Outsourcing in Clinical ... NC.  This event provides an excellent forum for ... easy-to-use, flexible and affordable software-as-a-service (SaaS) eClinical technology ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):NXT-ID's Wocket Biometric Smart Wallet to Air on "I Want That" International CES Special 2NXT-ID's Wocket Biometric Smart Wallet to Air on "I Want That" International CES Special 3NXT-ID's Wocket Smart Wallet Featured on Fox News Segment, "The Next Great Thing" 2NXT-ID's Wocket Smart Wallet Featured on Fox News Segment, "The Next Great Thing" 3Connect With MedNet Solutions At Outsourcing In Clinical Trials Southeast 2
(Date:4/16/2015)... Mass. (PRWEB) April 16, 2015 ... smart data solutions driven by Semantic Web technology, ... of specialist information and services for the academic ... announced that its joint solution ‘Smart Data Lake ... a finalist for the 2015 Bio-IT ‘Best of ...
(Date:4/16/2015)... April 16, 2015  Schulman Associates IRB, Inc., the ... signed a long-term lease on Laboratory Drive in the ... . The location will house review board and ... high quality reviews and customer service to clients. ... represented Schulman in the deal, while Capital Associates Management, ...
(Date:4/16/2015)... April 16, 2015 The Council ... the prestigious 2015 Borlaug CAST Communication Award goes ... at Tuskegee University in Alabama. Award nominees must ... public presentations; and/or the use of television, radio, ... three areas. As a specialist in the field ...
(Date:4/16/2015)... 16, 2015 /CNW/ - Bioenterprise Corporation is pleased to announce ... Charlottetown , PEI.  Bioenterprise has established ... ADAPT Council for the commercialization of agricultural technologies and ... with PEI ADAPT.  They have been at the heart ... decade," explains Dave Smardon , President & CEO ...
Breaking Biology Technology:Cambridge Semantics and Informa Named Bio-IT Award Finalist for Smart Data Lake Solution for Clinical Trial and Competitive Intelligence 2Cambridge Semantics and Informa Named Bio-IT Award Finalist for Smart Data Lake Solution for Clinical Trial and Competitive Intelligence 3Schulman IRB to Open Office in Research Triangle Park, N.C. 2The 2015 Borlaug CAST Communication Award Goes to Channapatna Prakash 2Bioenterprise Corporation Expands into the Maritimes 2
Cached News: