HOME >> BIOLOGY >> NEWS
How alcohol use during pregnancy can lead to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

  • Prenatal alcohol, cocaine and lead exposure can lead to attention deficit disorder and hyperactivity.
  • Spontaneous-activity levels of dopamine neurons help the brain focus attention.
  • Fetal alcohol exposure decreases the activity of dopamine neurons in the midbrain area, decreasing attention.
  • Stimulants like Ritalin can increase focus by restoring dopamine deficits.

The relationship between fetal alcohol exposure and brain function is as complex as the brain itself. Recently, however, a study funded by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) may have found a common linkage--spontaneous activity of dopamine neurons--between prenatal alcohol exposure and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

Although a mere three or four pounds in weight, the brain is composed of billions of nerve cells called neurons. Neurons communicate with each other at places called synapses by way of chemical messengers called neurotransmitters. Neurons generate electrical events called "action potentials" which cause neurotransmitters to travel across synapses, either "exciting" or "inhibiting" the "postsynaptic" or receiving cell. At any given moment, neurons are sending and/or receiving thousands of these messages. Scientists believe there are 100 or so different neurotransmitter varieties in the brain. Each neurotransmitter plays some role in most behaviors, but each neurotransmitter is often identified with a key behavior. Dopamine, for example, is strongly associated with motor system function, pleasure/reward, mental illness, craving and attention.

"The number of dopamine neurons isn't necessarily important," said Roh-Yu Shen, Senior Scientist at the Research Institute on Addictions, State University of New York and lead author of the study published in the November issue of Alcoholism: Clinical & Experimental Research. "What's important is how many of them are active."

Researchers g
'"/>

Contact: Roh-Yu Shen, Ph.D.
shen@ria.org
716-887-2593
Alcoholism: Clinical & Experimental Research
13-Nov-1999


Page: 1 2 3

Related biology news :

1. A liking for sweets, combined with novelty seeking, may predict alcoholism
2. Genes can influence both alcohol consumption and dependence
3. Infant rats eagerly accept high concentrations of alcohol upon first exposure
4. Acamprosate: potential medication for treating alcoholism
5. Antioxidants during pregnancy may help prevent birth defects tied to alcohol
6. Drunken worms reveal a genetic basis of alcohol response
7. Gene linked to alcoholism
8. Moderate alcohol consumption increases plasma levels of a protective hormone
9. Researchers find no link between alcohol consumption during pregnancy and asthma during childhood
10. Nonalcoholic beverages may impart cardiovascular benefits without the negative effects of alcohol
11. Gene therapy reduces drinking in rats with genetic predisposition to alcoholism

Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:


(Date:4/11/2017)... N.Y. , April 11, 2017 ... fingerprints, but researchers at the New York University ... College of Engineering have found that partial similarities ... security systems used in mobile phones and other ... thought. The vulnerability lies in the ...
(Date:4/5/2017)... 5, 2017  The Allen Institute for Cell Science ... a one-of-a-kind portal and dynamic digital window into the ... the first application of deep learning to create predictive ... lines and a growing suite of powerful tools. The ... and future publicly available resources created and shared by ...
(Date:4/4/2017)...   EyeLock LLC , a leader of iris-based ... Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) has issued U.S. Patent ... an iris image with a face image acquired in ... 45 th issued patent. "The ... the multi-modal biometric capabilities that have recently come to ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):
(Date:7/20/2017)... Massachusetts (PRWEB) , ... July 20, 2017 , ... ... a multi-part seminar on digital pathology and artificial intelligence Tuesday, July 25, during ... Dr. Alexander Baras from Johns Hopkins Medicine. , Baras, Associate Director of ...
(Date:7/18/2017)... ... July 18, 2017 , ... Nanomedical Diagnostics, a cutting-edge ... the launch of a new NTA biosensor chip for use with its label-free ... kinetics of polyhistidine-tagged (His-tagged) molecules quickly and reliably. , “Recombinant proteins are ...
(Date:7/18/2017)... ... July 18, 2017 , ... Blood centers traditionally see a dangerous ... Nationally, summer is a struggle for community blood centers as high schools are out ... Chamber of Commerce is teaming up with the South Texas Blood & ...
(Date:7/17/2017)... ... ... The Academy of Model Aeronautics (AMA) will host Aviation Adventure Day on ... from 9 a.m. to 2 p.m. at the International Aeromodeling Center in Muncie, Indiana. ... Day will be packed with entertaining activities for the entire family. Attendees will learn ...
Breaking Biology Technology:
Cached News: