HOME >> BIOLOGY >> NEWS
How alcohol use during pregnancy can lead to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

  • Prenatal alcohol, cocaine and lead exposure can lead to attention deficit disorder and hyperactivity.
  • Spontaneous-activity levels of dopamine neurons help the brain focus attention.
  • Fetal alcohol exposure decreases the activity of dopamine neurons in the midbrain area, decreasing attention.
  • Stimulants like Ritalin can increase focus by restoring dopamine deficits.

The relationship between fetal alcohol exposure and brain function is as complex as the brain itself. Recently, however, a study funded by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) may have found a common linkage--spontaneous activity of dopamine neurons--between prenatal alcohol exposure and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

Although a mere three or four pounds in weight, the brain is composed of billions of nerve cells called neurons. Neurons communicate with each other at places called synapses by way of chemical messengers called neurotransmitters. Neurons generate electrical events called "action potentials" which cause neurotransmitters to travel across synapses, either "exciting" or "inhibiting" the "postsynaptic" or receiving cell. At any given moment, neurons are sending and/or receiving thousands of these messages. Scientists believe there are 100 or so different neurotransmitter varieties in the brain. Each neurotransmitter plays some role in most behaviors, but each neurotransmitter is often identified with a key behavior. Dopamine, for example, is strongly associated with motor system function, pleasure/reward, mental illness, craving and attention.

"The number of dopamine neurons isn't necessarily important," said Roh-Yu Shen, Senior Scientist at the Research Institute on Addictions, State University of New York and lead author of the study published in the November issue of Alcoholism: Clinical & Experimental Research. "What's important is how many of them are active."

Researchers g
'"/>

Contact: Roh-Yu Shen, Ph.D.
shen@ria.org
716-887-2593
Alcoholism: Clinical & Experimental Research
13-Nov-1999


Page: 1 2 3

Related biology news :

1. A liking for sweets, combined with novelty seeking, may predict alcoholism
2. Genes can influence both alcohol consumption and dependence
3. Infant rats eagerly accept high concentrations of alcohol upon first exposure
4. Acamprosate: potential medication for treating alcoholism
5. Antioxidants during pregnancy may help prevent birth defects tied to alcohol
6. Drunken worms reveal a genetic basis of alcohol response
7. Gene linked to alcoholism
8. Moderate alcohol consumption increases plasma levels of a protective hormone
9. Researchers find no link between alcohol consumption during pregnancy and asthma during childhood
10. Nonalcoholic beverages may impart cardiovascular benefits without the negative effects of alcohol
11. Gene therapy reduces drinking in rats with genetic predisposition to alcoholism

Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:


(Date:2/2/2017)... 1, 2017  Central to its deep commitment ... worldwide, The Japan Prize Foundation today announced the ... pushed the envelope in their respective fields of ... scientists are being recognized with the 2017 Japan ... only contribute to the advancement of science and ...
(Date:1/26/2017)...  Acuity Market Intelligence today released the 2017 ...  Acuity characterizes 2017 as a "breakout" year for ... a new understanding of the potential benefits these ... identity are often perceived as threats to privacy ... of Acuity Market intelligence. "However, taken together these ...
(Date:1/21/2017)... Research and Markets has announced the addition of the "Global ... ... recognition biometrics market to grow at a CAGR of 19.36% during ... scenario and the growth prospects of the global voice recognition biometrics ... the revenue generated from the sales of voice recognition biometrics including ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):
(Date:2/21/2017)... ... February 21, 2017 , ... The medical potential of ... use, in multiple areas of medicine, due to their differentiating characteristics. Stem cells are ... have the ability to be induced to become tissue or organic-specific cells with special ...
(Date:2/21/2017)... ... February 21, 2017 , ... VetStem Biopharma, Inc ... headquarters laboratory in Poway, California. Based upon 12 years of knowledge gained ... and consultants, VetStem constructed and validated a state-of-the-art GMP stem cell manufacturing plant. ...
(Date:2/21/2017)... and VANCOUVER, British Columbia , Feb. ... ) today announced that apatorsen results from two randomized Phase ... Clinical Oncology (ASCO) 2017 Genitourinary Cancers Symposium, held February 16 ... . Clinical data from trials in bladder and prostate cancers ... in combination with standard-of-care treatments. ...
(Date:2/21/2017)... , Feb. 21, 2017   Logicalis Healthcare Solutions ... IT solutions and managed services provider ( www.us.logicalis.com ), ... Desk for Epic. The new service will help hospital ... resources by giving physicians, nurses and other clinicians immediate ... tier-one support. This will allow hospital IT staff to ...
Breaking Biology Technology:
Cached News: