HOME >> BIOLOGY >> NEWS
How alcohol use during pregnancy can lead to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

  • Prenatal alcohol, cocaine and lead exposure can lead to attention deficit disorder and hyperactivity.
  • Spontaneous-activity levels of dopamine neurons help the brain focus attention.
  • Fetal alcohol exposure decreases the activity of dopamine neurons in the midbrain area, decreasing attention.
  • Stimulants like Ritalin can increase focus by restoring dopamine deficits.

The relationship between fetal alcohol exposure and brain function is as complex as the brain itself. Recently, however, a study funded by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) may have found a common linkage--spontaneous activity of dopamine neurons--between prenatal alcohol exposure and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

Although a mere three or four pounds in weight, the brain is composed of billions of nerve cells called neurons. Neurons communicate with each other at places called synapses by way of chemical messengers called neurotransmitters. Neurons generate electrical events called "action potentials" which cause neurotransmitters to travel across synapses, either "exciting" or "inhibiting" the "postsynaptic" or receiving cell. At any given moment, neurons are sending and/or receiving thousands of these messages. Scientists believe there are 100 or so different neurotransmitter varieties in the brain. Each neurotransmitter plays some role in most behaviors, but each neurotransmitter is often identified with a key behavior. Dopamine, for example, is strongly associated with motor system function, pleasure/reward, mental illness, craving and attention.

"The number of dopamine neurons isn't necessarily important," said Roh-Yu Shen, Senior Scientist at the Research Institute on Addictions, State University of New York and lead author of the study published in the November issue of Alcoholism: Clinical & Experimental Research. "What's important is how many of them are active."

Researchers g
'"/>

Contact: Roh-Yu Shen, Ph.D.
shen@ria.org
716-887-2593
Alcoholism: Clinical & Experimental Research
13-Nov-1999


Page: 1 2 3

Related biology news :

1. A liking for sweets, combined with novelty seeking, may predict alcoholism
2. Genes can influence both alcohol consumption and dependence
3. Infant rats eagerly accept high concentrations of alcohol upon first exposure
4. Acamprosate: potential medication for treating alcoholism
5. Antioxidants during pregnancy may help prevent birth defects tied to alcohol
6. Drunken worms reveal a genetic basis of alcohol response
7. Gene linked to alcoholism
8. Moderate alcohol consumption increases plasma levels of a protective hormone
9. Researchers find no link between alcohol consumption during pregnancy and asthma during childhood
10. Nonalcoholic beverages may impart cardiovascular benefits without the negative effects of alcohol
11. Gene therapy reduces drinking in rats with genetic predisposition to alcoholism

Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:


(Date:12/10/2018)... , ... December 10, 2018 , ... ... strategic alliance to advance their shared goal of accelerating the development of the ... scale-up bioprocess systems to TRT’s core technology around human umbilical cord perivascular cells ...
(Date:12/5/2018)... ... December 03, 2018 , ... Quanta System announced ... in the distribution and marketing of cutting-edge aesthetic devices in the US. Since ... for 2018. Cartessa’s success can be attributed in-part to the company’s independent ...
(Date:12/5/2018)... ... December 04, 2018 , ... The new program ... the development of innovative solutions for which high-speed imaging is a necessary albeit ... to industrial machinery and instrumentation, allowing partner companies to dedicate their resources on ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):
(Date:11/26/2018)... ... November 26, 2018 , ... USARAD ... Healthineers and Omphalos Venture Partners (Virtual Radiologic founders) among other healthcare investors exhibits ... 25-29 at McCormick Place in Chicago. The company is proud to announce a ...
(Date:11/15/2018)... ... 2018 , ... Hüpnos announces the launch of ... It is estimated that 90 million Americans suffer from persistent snoring, ... resulting daytime fatigue causes extreme difficulty with concentration, focus and memory. It’s ...
(Date:11/13/2018)... CLARA, Calif. (PRWEB) , ... November 13, 2018 , ... ... its Beijing Office in China. With the increasingly growing demand for AFM technology in ... research and industrial communities by opening an office in Beijing equipped with Park AFM. ...
(Date:11/9/2018)... ... November 08, 2018 , ... Superior Controls, Inc. ... solutions with 140 employees on both the east and west coasts, today announced ... Convention Center on November 14 and 15 in Philadelphia. The event is hosted ...
Breaking Biology Technology:
Cached News: