JCI table of contents, 15 October, 2003

une response, and inflammation. Following injury or infection, vascular endothelial cells regulate the migration of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) to the site of injury. Toll-like receptor (TLR) -2 and TLR4, are expressed by many first-line host defense molecules, including PMNs, and act to recognize pathogens and initiate the immune response. Asrar Malik and colleagues from the University of Illinois School of Medicine demonstrate that during infection, the activation of PMNs via TLR4 instructs endothelial cells to upregulate TLR2 and therefore further sensitizes these cells to foreign invaders and drives the immune response in a positive feedback loop. The authors report that this "message" is sent by the release of free oxygen radicals following cell-cell interaction. This communication between receptors is called "cross talk".

In an accompanying commentary, Eicke Latz and Douglas Golenbock from the University of Massachusetts Medical School comment, "this complex process of temporally regulated reponses to microbes via different TLRs is unlikely to be restricted to bacteria. Recent studies, for example, have documented the recognition of herpes viruses by TLR2. The general theme is that, as pathogens march through their target cells, a highly coordinated and intricate immune response program is likely initiated".

The report indicates the important role of TLR4 signaling and subsequent TLR2 activation in amplifying the migration of PMNs to the sites of infection.

TITLE: TLR4 signaling induces TLR2 expression in endothelial cells via neutrophil NADPH oxidase

Asrar B. Malik
University of Illinois College of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois, USA.
Phone: (312) 996-7635
Fax: (312) 996-1225
E-mail: abmalik@uic.edu

View the PDF of this article at: https://www.the-jci.org/press/18696.

Contact: Brooke Grindlinger
Journal of Clinical Investigation

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