HOME >> BIOLOGY >> NEWS
Nerve cells' death different from other cells'

Writing in the July 12 issue of the journal Science, Hopkins-led researchers say they have identified in neurons a novel form of "programmed" cell death unlike those already known -- apoptosis and necrosis.

The finding, in mouse cells, defines for the first time a window of opportunity to prevent a neuron's death and perhaps find new targets to try to treat Parkinson disease, stroke and traumatic brain injury, says Valina Dawson, Ph.D., of Hopkins' Institute for Cell Engineering and professor of neuroscience at the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine.

"All cell death is 'programmed' in that it results from a particular series of events," says Dawson. "But up to a certain point, the outcome is not inevitable and interference with the process can prevent or delay cell death. Knowing when that window of opportunity closes is critical."

Building on knowledge that activation of an enzyme called PARP is a key initiator of neuron death, the scientists have learned that "apoptosis-inducing factor," or AIF, is the final blow. Made in nerve cells' mitochondria in response to excessive DNA damage and PARP activation, AIF is sent into the nucleus, immediately causing the cells' genetic material to collapse.

"AIF entering the nucleus seems to be the point of no return -- once it gets in, the cell is going to die no matter what you do," says Dawson. AIF needs help to escape the mitochondria, travel through the cell and enter the nucleus, she says, and identifying the molecules that accompany it should offer opportunities to interfere and potentially prevent the cell from dying.

PARP, or poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase, is known primarily as the "guardian of the genome," because it recognizes damaged DNA and prepares it for repair. However, in cells with too much damage to their DNA, PARP triggers a cascade of events that causes the cell to die. PARP-controlled cell death is the major death pathway for neurons, particularly in response to
'"/>

Contact: Joanna Downer
jdowner1@jhmi.edu
410-614-5105
Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions
16-Jul-2002


Page: 1 2 3

Related biology news :

1. Nerve cells guided to repair spinal damage: Technique
2. Nerves, heal thyselves
3. Nerve disorder in mice and men linked to mutated gene
4. Never too late to boogie: Nerve cells still active in mature brain
5. Nerve protein shown crucial to sensations of pain from heat, injury
6. Nerve cells with stoppage: Evidence for a molecular key step in the process of signal transduction between nerve cells
7. Scientists Discover Protein In Mammals Tuned To Respond To What May Be Hottest Temperature Our Nerves Can Detect
8. Nerve Cells On The Go
9. Human/Insect/Jellyfish Genes Team To Quiet "Hyper" Nerve Cells
10. Small G-Proteins Make A Big Difference -- Nerve Cell Signalling Is Regulated By Arf-GTPases And Their Activators
11. How Nerve Cells Get In Touch - A Molecular Model Of Synapse Formation And Retrograde Signalling In The Brain

Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:


(Date:8/23/2020)... Texas (PRWEB) , ... August 21, 2020 , ... ... Rigaku Corporation has been published and is now available on the ... crystal X-ray diffraction—serves the X-ray analysis community, presenting current news and crystallographic research. ...
(Date:8/21/2020)... , ... August 20, 2020 , ... ... Hassan Movahhed , a Clinical Operations executive with expertise in clinical trial ... joined the firm as an Expert Consultant. Throughout his career, Mr. Movahhed has ...
(Date:8/7/2020)... , ... August 06, 2020 , ... ... participate in the prestigious National STEM Scholar Program, a unique professional development program ... and project support for middle school science teachers nationwide. , Created in partnership ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):
(Date:8/3/2020)... ... 03, 2020 , ... Introducing Ardent Animal Health – MediVet Biologics rebrands company ... Known as MediVet Biologics since its formation in 2016, the company is relaunching ... Health will build on its base of innovative therapies for osteoarthritis and cancer. ...
(Date:7/31/2020)... CAMBRIDGE, Mass. and SOMERSET, N.J (PRWEB) , ... ... ... a leading genome editing company, and Catalent, the leading global provider of advanced ... and consumer health products, today announced that they have entered into a strategic ...
(Date:7/18/2020)... ... July 16, 2020 , ... After research model surgery and catheter implantation, ... surgery is only the beginning of a successful study, while protecting and accessing the ... Gien, Global Head of Surgery from Envigo in a live webinar ...
(Date:7/10/2020)... ... July 09, 2020 , ... ... today that Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) has expanded the company’s exclusive ... PathSensors to move into the point-of-care diagnostic market, focusing initially on the ...
Breaking Biology Technology:
Cached News: