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Researchers identify gene required for marking DNA as having come from the mother

NEW YORK, - In a finding that could help scientists better understand the basis of sexual reproduction, researchers at Columbia University College of Physicians & Surgeons have for the first time identified a gene required for establishing the genomic imprinting of maternal genes.

Genomic imprinting is the process that marks parts of the genome, or the entire collection of genetic material of an organism, as having been inherited from one's mother or father.

Each cell in the human body has 23 pairs of chromosomes, with one of each pair coming from the mother and the other derived from the father. But besides inheriting the 30,000 to 50,000 genes carried by the 23 chromosomes, some 100 to 200 genes in humans carry an extra mark, or imprint, that identifies them as having come from either mom or dad.

The mark is usually in the form of the addition to the DNA of a chemical substance, called a methyl group. Methylation increases the information content of DNA and can be used to keep genes in the inactive state.

Scientists have known for some time that imprinting silences genes in offspring, allowing the other copy of the gene to be expressed. Researchers have reported a variety of genes--such as the one for Igf2 (insulin-like growth factor-2) and H19--that are expressed differently in offspring, depending on if they came from the mother or father. But almost nothing has been known about the genes that mark the DNA for imprinting during the formation of the sperm and egg.

In research published in the Nov. 23 issue of Science magazine's online publication Science Express, Columbia scientists have identified a gene, Dnmt3L, that is required for chemically marking certain parts of the mouse genome as being inherited from the mother. The gene is the first to be shown to play a role in the establishment of imprinting during egg development.

Led by Dr. Timothy Bestor, professor of genetics and development, the Columbia researc
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Contact: Annie Bayne
as862@columbia.edu
Columbia University Medical Center
11-Dec-2001


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