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Researchers one step closer to Holy Grail of neurobiology

use estrogens strongly drive female sex behaviors, we were interested in determining if the genes encoding the estrogen receptors alpha and beta could be involved in a more global brain function."

The experiments were set up to study female mice sleeping in their home cages as they do during the light phase of the daily light/dark cycle. According to Pfaff, studying the animal in its home cage during the light cycle ensures that the mouse will not be exploring its cage. This approach removes biases due to fear and anxiety and provides a zero baseline. A computer automatically measured the responses to carefully presented sensory stimuli.

The sensory stimuli administered were vestibular, in which the mouse's home cage was vertically raised; tactile, in which a mice was exposed to a brief air puff strong enough to deflect the hair on its back; olfactory, in which the mouse's response to various odors was measured; and auditory, a five second burst of loud white noise.

The key to getting arousal into a modern genetic and physiologic framework, Pfaff says, is to have physical responses, which are the proof of arousal.

"In addition to receiving sensory stimuli, we have the animal moving on a running wheel," Pfaff says. "That's also part of the operational definition. So what we're trying to do is turn the most fundamental behavioral concept into a set of responses measured physically and quantitatively."

From responses to stimuli and the running wheel experiments, Pfaff and his colleagues found that the sensory alertness and the motor activity of mice lacking the estrogen receptor-alpha was significantly less than genetically normal control mice. Surprisingly, there was no significant change in motor activity between mice lacking the beta estrogen receptor and control mice.

With respect to the findings of the estrogen receptor-alpha knockout mice, Pfaff says, "It was surprising to us that a gene for a se
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Contact: Joseph Bonner
bonnerj@rockefeller.edu
212-327-8998
Rockefeller University
14-Aug-2003


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