HOME >> BIOLOGY >> NEWS
Scientists close in on trigger of insulin resistance

In experiments with fat cells, Johns Hopkins scientists have discovered direct evidence that a build-up of sugar on proteins triggers insulin resistance, a key feature of most cases of diabetes.

The results underscore the importance of glycosylation attachment of a sugar to a protein -- as a way cells control proteins' activities, the scientists report in the April 16 issue of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. The scientists found that at least two proteins involved in passing along insulin's message were unlikely to work properly when coated in extra sugar.

Type 2 diabetes, the most common form in adults, occurs when muscle, fat and other tissues stop responding to insulin's signals to mop up sugar from the blood. The resulting high blood sugar, if uncontrolled, can lead to blindness, amputation and death. Understanding sugar's precise influence on insulin's activity may help improve treatment and prevention, scientists hope.

"Cells don't respond to insulin itself. Instead, a whole cascade of events, set in motion by insulin, eventually causes cells to take in sugar," explains Gerald Hart, Ph.D., professor and director of biological chemistry in the school's Institute for Basic Biomedical Sciences. "We now have an explanation of how sugar can affect these signals, and even a hypothesis for how high blood sugar could cause tissue damage in diabetes -- by improperly modifying proteins."

Hart's lab discovered 18 years ago that sugar is used routinely inside cells to modify proteins, turning them on and off. The more commonly known protein-controller, phosphate, actually binds to some of the same building blocks of proteins as sugar does. If proteins have too many sugars on them, they can't be controlled properly by the cell and are unlikely to work correctly, suggests Hart.

"We think we've come across a major mechanistic reason for insulin resistance," says Hart. "These cells developed insulin resistance
'"/>

Contact: Joanna Downer
jdowner1@jhmi.edu
410-614-5105
Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions
15-Apr-2002


Page: 1 2 3

Related biology news :

1. Scientists to prototype cyberinfrastructure for research and education access to ocean observatories
2. Scientists sequence genome of kind of organism central to biospheres carbon cycle
3. Scientists find nanowires capable of detecting individual viruses
4. Scientists discover potential new way to control drug-resistant bacteria
5. Scientists explore genome of methane-breathing microbe
6. Scientists decipher genetic code of biothreat pathogen
7. Stuck on you: Scientists lay bare secrets of bacterial attachment proteins
8. Scientists discover proteins involved in spread of HIV-1 infection
9. Scientists fear new Ebola outbreak may explain sudden gorilla disappearance
10. Scientists reinvent DNA as template to produce organic molecules
11. Scientists visualise cellular handmaiden that restores shape to proteins

Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:


(Date:3/27/2021)... ... March 25, 2021 , ... Phlexglobal announced ... Planet Group, has selected Phlexglobal and its innovative regulatory SaaS software, PhlexSubmission, as ... a comprehensive review of five regulatory software companies, with the review team including ...
(Date:3/27/2021)... ... 25, 2021 , ... The 2021 Virtual Conference on Clinical Trial Supply-Europe ... More and more, clinical trial supply conferences are featuring speakers and forums that ... Asymmetrex’s founder and CEO, James L. Sherley, M.D., Ph.D., presented a talk ...
(Date:3/23/2021)... ... March 23, 2021 , ... G-CON Manufacturing (G-CON), the ... by Matica Biotechnology (Matica Bio), a contract development and manufacturing organization (CDMO) specializing ... the cleanroom build out for its new GMP production facility in College Station, ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):
(Date:3/27/2021)... ... March 24, 2021 , ... ... Life Sciences and Healthcare firms of all sizes, adds depth to its team ... specialist. Pardillo, who earned his doctorate in computational chemistry from Florida International University ...
(Date:3/27/2021)... ... March 24, 2021 , ... ABI Wellness, ... and reporting approach designed under CEO Mark Watson, today announced a webinar dedicated ... featuring guest speakers Dr. Cameron Clark, Neuropsychologist and Founder of Sharp Thinking, and ...
(Date:3/27/2021)... ... ... The Xtalks editorial team is pleased to announce the launch of the ... joined by editorial team members Ayesha Rashid, Sydney Perelmutter and Mira Nabulsi to discuss ... including insights from industry experts. , The Xtalks Life Science podcast will feature ...
(Date:3/23/2021)... Conn. (PRWEB) , ... March 23, 2021 , ... ... develops solutions for characterizing microbiome populations down to the strain level, recently unveiled ... applications. , Not all microbes are created equal: some are easy to ...
Breaking Biology Technology:
Cached News: