Small G-Proteins Make A Big Difference -- Nerve Cell Signalling Is Regulated By,,Arf-GTPases And Their Activators

Researchers at the Max Planck Institutes for Biophysical Chemistry and for Experimental Medicine in Göttingen/Germany discovered a new regulatory process through which nerve cells modulate the release of neurotransmitter in the brain (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 96, 1094-1099; Feb. 2, 1999).

Information in the brain is transmitted at synapses which are specialized contact zones between a sending and a receiving nerve cell. When stimulated, the sending nerve cell releases signalling molecules. These so called neurotransmitters diffuse to the receiving nerve cell where they activate surface receptors that in turn change the physiological state of the receiving cell and thereby transmit the synaptic signal.

Transmitter release at synapses is a complex process. It involves a large number of proteins which regulate the turnover of synaptic vesicles, small membranous intracellular organelles that store neurotransmitter and release it upon stimulation by fusing with the cell membrane. In a nerve cell, synaptic vesicles pass through a sophisticated cycle of fusion and budding reactions, and the efficiency of these reactions determines the vesicle supply that is ready for transmitter release at any moment in time.

Uri Ashery and Volker Scheuss in the laboratory of Jens Rettig at the Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, Göttingen/Germany, used a new method to identify two novel regulators of the synaptic vesicle cycle. In collaboration with Henriette Koch and Nils Brose, head of a research group at the Max Planck Institute for Experimental Medicine in Göttingen/Germany, they expressed the protein msec7-1 in neuromuscular synapses of Xenopus frogs. msec7-1 is an activator of members of the Arf-family of small GTPases. Both msec7-1 and Arfs are very prominent regulators of membrane transport in the Golgi apparatus of all cells in the body. The Göttingen group discovered that the msec7/Arf-system plays an as yet unrecognized

Contact: Jens Rettig, Nils Brose

Page: 1 2

Related biology news :

1. Small, Smac-like molecule encourages death of cancer cells
2. Small animal imaging gives cancer clues
3. Small RNA surmounts large cancer problem
4. Small, cold, & hungry: Ultra-small microbes from 120,000-year-old glacier ice sample
5. Small trial shows daclizumab add-on therapy improves MS outcome
6. Small gene changes in some leukemia patients may explain varying responses to chemotherapy
7. Small amounts of alcohol or anesthetics may damage the developing brain
8. Smallpox in 50-year-old tissues detected by integrated diagnostics approach
9. Small-molecule inhibitors of anthrax lethal factor identified
10. Smallpox in Europe selected for genetic mutation that confers resistance to HIV infection
11. Small-molecule inhibitors of botulinum neurotoxin identified

Post Your Comments:

(Date:8/21/2020)... ... August 20, 2020 , ... NDA Partners Chairman ... Operations executive with expertise in clinical trial planning and feasibility, regulatory inspection readiness, ... Consultant. Throughout his career, Mr. Movahhed has helped design and manage oncology, neurology, ...
(Date:8/7/2020)... ... 06, 2020 , ... Nine middle school teachers from eight ... a unique professional development program that provides advanced STEM (science, technology, engineering and ... nationwide. , Created in partnership between the National Stem Cell Foundation and The ...
(Date:7/31/2020)... ... July 30, 2020 , ... Justin Zamirowski to ... a near term focus on Type 2 diabetes and associated comorbidities. , Justin ... therapeutic areas and classes. As Chief Commercial Officer, Justin will lead Better ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):
(Date:8/31/2020)... ... August 29, 2020 , ... DuPont Nutrition ... in Wuxi, China. The new plant operation will provide the local animal production ... , “This facility will improve the flexibility of our offerings to the ...
(Date:8/12/2020)... ... August 11, 2020 , ... The FSHD Society ... Muscular Dystrophy Clinical Trial Research Network (FSHD CTRN), with consideration of ... a consortium of academic research centers in the United States and Europe with ...
(Date:8/7/2020)... THE WOODLANDS, Texas (PRWEB) , ... August 06, ... ... gene therapy and DNA vaccine industries, announces it has closed on the purchase ... Deison Technology Park in Conroe, TX and includes over 21 acres in the ...
(Date:7/31/2020)... ... July 29, 2020 , ... R3 Stem Cell International is now offering patients ... million stem cells total, patients may choose which extremities they would like treated. , ... (BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2016). At R3 International, umbilical cord tissue is obtained from a ...
Breaking Biology Technology:
Cached News: