Tailoring mitochondria to the cell's needs

Cells increase their complement of mitochondria in response to rising metabolic demands or altered physiological conditions. This biosynthetic process is complicated, in part because mitochondrial composition varies between cell types. All cells depend on mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos), but some--notably adult cardiac myocytes-- are specialized for metabolizing fatty acids in their mitochondria. Most other cells, including those in the neonatal heart, rely on the reducing power generated as glucose is metabolized in the cytoplasm. Likewise, mitochondria in brown adipose tissue (BAT), but not in most other cells, contain high levels of uncoupling proteins that allow OxPhos to generate heat rather than ATP.

Lehman et al. now show that the transcriptional co-activator PGC-1 is limiting for mitochondrial proliferation in cardiac muscle, and they argue that this factor helps direct quantitative and qualitative changes in the mitochondrial population of various cells. PGC-1 interacts with PPARa in heart cells (and with PPARg or other transcription factors elsewhere) to activate mitochondrial biogenesis. PGC-1 and PPARg mediate BAT's response to cold, but in cardiac myocytes, as Lehman and colleagues now show, PGC-1 and PPARa activate mitochondrial proliferation during fasting and at other times when fatty acid oxidation becomes increasingly important to meet the heart's energy needs. Overexpressing PGC-1in cardiac cells increases cells' capacity to carry out fatty acid oxidation and coupled OxPhos. Because this transgene activates a different set of genes and functions in BAT, the authors suggest that pairing of PGC-1with PPARa specifies the expression of cardiac mitochondrial components. The importance of maintaining tight control over this regulatory system is seen in the phenotype of transgenic mice expressing PGC-1 constitutively in the heart. These animals show a dramatic proliferation of cardiac mitochondria but develop dilate

Contact: John Ashkenas
Journal of Clinical Investigation

Page: 1 2

Related biology news :

1. Tailoring new cotton genes for industry
2. Making of mouse marks move toward mitochondrial medicine
3. Alzheimers protein jams mitochondria of affected cells; resulting energy crisis kills neurons
4. Mitokor publishes human mitochondrial genome sequencing study - American Journal of Human Genetics
5. Regulation of vascular tone by a secreted mitochondrial peptide
6. Human reproductive success tied to mitochondrial organization in eggs
7. Gatekeeper protein is key to cellular life; links bacteria, chloroplasts and mitochondria
8. University of Pittsburgh researchers uncover mitochondrial defect involved with inherited cancers
9. Cigarette smoke causes breaks in DNA and defects to a cells chromosomes, Pitt study finds
10. UCSD biologists discover cells defense mechanism against class of disease-causing bacterial toxins
11. Proteins enable HIV to override cells defenses

Post Your Comments:

(Date:8/2/2018)... ... August 02, 2018 , ... RxS LLC (“RxS”), a privately ... announced that Mark Jara, principal of the organization, has been named to PharmaVOICE ... Individuals named to PharmaVOICE 100 are leaders who drive the industry forward and ...
(Date:8/1/2018)... Md. (PRWEB) , ... August 01, 2018 , ... ... software portfolio, announces the release of Limfinity® version 7.1. Limfinity® is the software ... to Limfinity® itself creates new possibilities for both current users and the future ...
(Date:8/1/2018)... JUPITER, Fla. (PRWEB) , ... August 01, 2018 ... ... “YOU” the staff NP, PA’s, RN’s, LPN’s, MA's and Administrative staff. , This ... processing of all the biologics. The course will expose your staff to regenerative ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):
(Date:7/25/2018)... ... July 25, 2018 , ... ... managing clinical trial patient and supplies data through its flagship IXRS® 3 ... IRT: Best Practices.” , This podcast features both Almac thought leaders and outside ...
(Date:7/24/2018)... ... July 24, 2018 , ... R3 Stem Cell is ... Vegas. The treatments are offered by Double Board Certified providers, with outcomes significantly improving ... with suppressing symptoms, but have done nothing to help repair and regenerate damaged lung ...
(Date:7/22/2018)... ... July 19, 2018 , ... CallTower ... joined their team. With more than ten years of strategic, result-oriented Channel experience ... expertise as CallTower’s Channel Director for the Southwest and Mountain region. , As ...
(Date:7/22/2018)... ... July 20, 2018 , ... ... automation and IT solutions with 150 employees on both the east and west ... Program. Superior Controls met the high criteria for application expertise, operational excellence ...
Breaking Biology Technology:
Cached News: