HOME >> BIOLOGY >> NEWS
Yale scientists decipher odor code

New Haven, Conn. Yale scientists, working with the fruit fly as a model, have discovered how odors are encoded by the olfactory system into the complex messages that are sent to the brain. The study, published in the June 25 issue of Cell, provides new insight into how animals sense and distinguish odors, a process that is essential to identifying food, mates and predators.

Graduate student Elissa Hallem and her advisor John Carlson, professor in the Department of Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology at Yale University, systematically tested the odor receptor proteins in the fruit fly antenna and recorded which odors they detect.

The noses of humans and the antennae of insects contain many odor receptor proteins, but it was previously not known how the entire collection of receptors act together to encode olfactory information.

Each fruit fly antenna has 32 odorant receptors, and Hallem and Carlson used a mutant fruit fly to determine their individual odor sensitivities. The antenna of their mutant fruit fly has an "empty" nerve cell, or neuron, that has lost its original odor receptor and does not respond to any odors.

Using genetic engineering, Hallem and Carlson created a series of mutant flies, each with a different fruit fly odor receptor in the previously empty neuron. They then tested the engineered neuron in each fly for the odor sensitivity of the receptor.

They found that some receptors responded strongly to many of the tested odors, while others responded strongly to only one or none. Some odors activated many receptors, and some odors activated only one. Some receptors are able to respond in different ways to different odors activated by some odors and inhibited by others.

"We were able to create a map of which odor receptor is expressed in which type of neuron," said Hallem. According to Carlson, this receptor-to-neuron map is the first map of its kind of the olfactory system. <
'"/>

Contact: Janet Rettig Emanuel
janet.emanuel@yale.edu
203-432-2157
Yale University
25-Jun-2004


Page: 1 2

Related biology news :

1. DNA lends scientists a hand, revealing new chemical reactions
2. Conference at UH opens doors for new scientists, engineers
3. Wisconsin scientists develop quick botox test
4. UCI scientists successfully target key HIV protein; breakthrough may lead to new drug therapies
5. Alaska scientists find Arctic tundra yields surprising carbon loss
6. UAF scientists discover new marine habitat in Alaska
7. Information system to help scientists analyze mechanisms of social behavior
8. Zoonotic diseases - European scientists unite to fight diseases
9. Israeli scientists reveal the plan of a key cellular machine
10. Study by Israeli scientists provides insight on DNA code
11. Computer scientists at UH developing nurturing computers

Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:


(Date:1/3/2017)... VEGAS , Jan. 3, 2017 Onitor, ... the introduction of Onitor Track, an innovative biometric data-driven ... men, showcasing this month at the 2017 Consumer Electronics ... In the U.S., the World Health ... more than two-thirds of adults who are overweight or ...
(Date:12/20/2016)... 20, 2016   Valencell , the leading ... STMicroelectronics (NYSE: STM), a global semiconductor leader ... announced today the launch of a new, highly ... that includes ST,s compact SensorTile turnkey ... biometric sensor system. Together, SensorTile and Benchmark deliver ...
(Date:12/16/2016)... The global wearable medical device market, in terms of ... USD 5.31 billion in 2016, at a CAGR of 18.0% during ... ... in medical devices, launch of a growing number of smartphone-based healthcare ... healthcare providers, and increasing focus on physical fitness. ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):
(Date:1/19/2017)... PUNE, India , Jan. 19, 2017  Market Research Future ... The Global Market for Liquid Biopsy is growing rapidly and expected ... period. Market Highlights ... The Global Liquid Biopsy Market has been assessed as ... high growth figures and boom in the coming future. There has ...
(Date:1/19/2017)... 2017 Research and Markets ... has announced the addition of the ... to 2025" report to their offering. ... report provides a detailed analysis on current and future market trends to ... estimated market values as the base numbers Key market ...
(Date:1/19/2017)... GAITHERSBURG, Md. , Jan. 19, 2017 /PRNewswire/ ... a privately-held immunotherapeutics company targeting infectious diseases, announced ... the merger of PharmAthene and Altimmune in an ... Fund, HealthCap, Truffle Capital and Redmont Capital. The ... immunotherapeutics company with four clinical stage and one ...
(Date:1/19/2017)... (PRWEB) , ... January 18, 2017 , ... ... National Institutes of Health (NIH) to update its Data Sharing Policy. Specifically, the ... element of grant applications subject to the existing policy. AMIA recommended that NIH ...
Breaking Biology Technology:
Cached News: