HOME >> BIOLOGY >> NEWS
Yale scientists decipher odor code

New Haven, Conn. Yale scientists, working with the fruit fly as a model, have discovered how odors are encoded by the olfactory system into the complex messages that are sent to the brain. The study, published in the June 25 issue of Cell, provides new insight into how animals sense and distinguish odors, a process that is essential to identifying food, mates and predators.

Graduate student Elissa Hallem and her advisor John Carlson, professor in the Department of Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology at Yale University, systematically tested the odor receptor proteins in the fruit fly antenna and recorded which odors they detect.

The noses of humans and the antennae of insects contain many odor receptor proteins, but it was previously not known how the entire collection of receptors act together to encode olfactory information.

Each fruit fly antenna has 32 odorant receptors, and Hallem and Carlson used a mutant fruit fly to determine their individual odor sensitivities. The antenna of their mutant fruit fly has an "empty" nerve cell, or neuron, that has lost its original odor receptor and does not respond to any odors.

Using genetic engineering, Hallem and Carlson created a series of mutant flies, each with a different fruit fly odor receptor in the previously empty neuron. They then tested the engineered neuron in each fly for the odor sensitivity of the receptor.

They found that some receptors responded strongly to many of the tested odors, while others responded strongly to only one or none. Some odors activated many receptors, and some odors activated only one. Some receptors are able to respond in different ways to different odors activated by some odors and inhibited by others.

"We were able to create a map of which odor receptor is expressed in which type of neuron," said Hallem. According to Carlson, this receptor-to-neuron map is the first map of its kind of the olfactory system. <
'"/>

Contact: Janet Rettig Emanuel
janet.emanuel@yale.edu
203-432-2157
Yale University
25-Jun-2004


Page: 1 2

Related biology news :

1. DNA lends scientists a hand, revealing new chemical reactions
2. Conference at UH opens doors for new scientists, engineers
3. Wisconsin scientists develop quick botox test
4. UCI scientists successfully target key HIV protein; breakthrough may lead to new drug therapies
5. Alaska scientists find Arctic tundra yields surprising carbon loss
6. UAF scientists discover new marine habitat in Alaska
7. Information system to help scientists analyze mechanisms of social behavior
8. Zoonotic diseases - European scientists unite to fight diseases
9. Israeli scientists reveal the plan of a key cellular machine
10. Study by Israeli scientists provides insight on DNA code
11. Computer scientists at UH developing nurturing computers

Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
TAG: Yale scientists decipher odor code

(Date:4/23/2014)... a newly coined term for novels and films which focus ... of Copenhagen shows how these fictions serve as a mental ... climate change and imagine other living conditions. , "Global ... the atmosphere; it is also a cultural phenomenon in which ... the films we see. And there are so many of ...
(Date:4/23/2014)... at the University of Houston (UH) is working to ... His work is supported by a $1.8 million grant ... Blood transfusions save millions of lives every year. They ... for instance, routine surgeries would become life threatening. This ... that transfusions of red blood cells stored in a ...
(Date:4/22/2014)... There,s a new secret to get your child to behave ... , A new Cornell study published in Eating Behaviors ... they had to bite with their front teeth such as ... rowdier than when these foods had been cut. ... as aggressive toward other kids," said Brian Wansink, Professor and ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):Fiction prepares us for a world changed by global warming 2Fiction prepares us for a world changed by global warming 3UH biomedical engineer works to make blood transfusions safer 2UH biomedical engineer works to make blood transfusions safer 3Biting vs. chewing 2
(Date:1/15/2014)... January 15, 2014 More than 5 ... about 1 in 3 seniors will die with Alzheimer’s ... These jaw-dropping figures have shocked many Americans into looking ... help prevent these tragic age-related cognitive disorders. Jonathan Weisman, ...
(Date:1/15/2014)... 2014 DTS Language Services, Inc . ... Portal for Life Science organizations who need document translations. ... matter of their documents in advance with a selection of ... of translations, often a critical factor in clinical and scientific ...
(Date:1/15/2014)... AudioNotch is the internet's leading provider of Notched Sound ... Patients listen to sound therapy that is tailor-made for ... to months, their tinnitus volume decreases. , AudioNotch has previously ... Notched White Noise. Now, AudioNotch is pleased to announce to ...
(Date:1/14/2014)... (PRWEB) January 14, 2014 Carahsoft and ... Thursday, January 23, 2014 at 2pm EST (11am PST), ... The topic focuses on how technology can turn raw, ... decisions for government agencies. The online webinar will last ...
Breaking Biology Technology:Biohack Pure Offers 5 Tips for Increasing Memory in 2014 2DTS Improves Efficiency for Life Science Document Translations 2Webcast - Natural Language Processing: Converting Raw Data into Actionable Knowledge – Hosted by Carahsoft and CDS Federal Services 2
Cached News: