HOME >> BIOLOGY >> NEWS
2-step process filters evolution of genes of human and chimpanzee

Although the human and chimpanzee genomes are distinguished by 35 million differences in individual DNA "letters," only about 50,000 of those differences alter the sequences of proteins. Of those 50,000 differences, an estimated 5,000 may have adaptive consequences in the evolutionary divergence between these two species, according to a study published in the March 6, 2007, issue of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

Before such a new and beneficial mutation can take its place in the human genome it has to pass through a rigorous two-stepnegative and positivescreening process, say the study authors, evolutionary geneticists from the University of Chicago, the University of Tokyo and the University of Washington. Both steps focus on the most radical changes.

In step one, mutations, the genetic equivalent of typographical errors, are randomly introduced. When these mutations are still rare in the population, only strongly deleterious ones get weeded out through negative selection. The more radical mutations are more likely to be harmful and quickly removed. For those that are only slightly harmful, neutral or beneficial, the selective forces are weak and luck determines their fates.

In step two, a new mutation that has been fortunate enough to survive the initial elimination process, and confers some benefit, can then spread quickly through positive selection. The more radical the mutation, at this point, the faster it is likely to spread.

"We found that the same genetic changes that are unlikely to survive early negative selection are the ones that spread most quickly once they gain a foothold," said the studys senior author Chung-I Wu, Ph.D., professor of ecology and evolution at the University of Chicago. "To reach that conclusion, we needed to decouple the two steps of evolution and classify mutations into many different kinds."

The researchers used the very large survey of human ge
'"/>

Contact: John Easton
john.easton@uchospitals.edu
773-702-6241
University of Chicago Medical Center
5-Mar-2007


Page: 1 2 3

Related biology news :

1. Hepatitis C helicase unwinds DNA in a spring-loaded, 3-step process
2. N.C. A&T food scientist develops process for allergen-free peanuts
3. The UAB heads a European research project on proteases and pathological processes
4. Herpes virus hijacks DNA repair process
5. Molecular motors may speed nutrient processing
6. Study shows response to financial loss parallels brains processing of pain
7. A rainbow of methods promises insights into biological processes and diseases
8. Cancer scientists create human leukemia process to map how disease begins, progresses
9. Information processing in the central nervous system: the signalling system controlling movement
10. UCLA identifies new molecule involved in the bodys processing of dietary fat
11. Newly discovered platform for processing dietary fat

Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
TAG: step process filters evolution genes human and chimpanzee

(Date:11/10/2014)... appearing on U.S. store shelves in early 2010, and ... The small packets can be tossed into a washing ... or powder. The convenience, though, has come with risks ... at Nationwide Children,s Hospital found that from 2012 through ... children younger than 6 years of age swallowing, inhaling, ...
(Date:11/6/2014)... because of metastasis, yet progress in preventing and ... "It,s been particularly challenging to design drugs that ... in systems biology at Harvard Medical School. ... they,ve already metastasized." , Gujral and colleagues have ... researchers better understand how metastasis begins. Their findings ...
(Date:11/5/2014)... de Janeiro, Brazil -Individuals show great diversity in their ... males and females greatly differ in their perceptual evaluation ... of smell tests. , Sex differences in ... behaviors and may be connected to one,s perception of ... emotions. Thus, women,s olfactory superiority has been suggested to ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):Study finds laundry detergent pods, serious poisoning risk for children 2Migration negation 2Migration negation 3The female nose always knows: Do women have more olfactory neurons? 2
(Date:11/18/2014)... LA (PRWEB) November 17, 2014 ... build-to-order, open architecture blade-based and rackmount computing infrastructure, ... Tesla® K80 dual-GPU accelerator throughout its GPU-enabled blade ... pair of the company’s latest proprietary 80-lane Gen3 ... eight discrete NVIDIA Tesla K80 dual-GPU accelerator cards ...
(Date:11/18/2014)... Athena Signature Series: Turning Cancer ‘Off’ – featuring ... professor in the Regulatory Biology Laboratory at the Salk Institute, ... to an “off switch” for drug resistance in cancer. , ... research is making a global impact in the fight against ... host Cheryl K. Goodman, CEO of Social Global Mobile LLC, ...
(Date:11/18/2014)... 18, 2014 American Process Inc. ... formed a partnership with researchers at Georgia Institute ... Technology, and the USDA’s Forest Products Laboratory to ... nanocellulose. Nanocellulose is a rapidly emerging high performance ... project is to replace heavy steel structures within ...
(Date:11/18/2014)... 2014 2014 Deep Research ... professional and in-depth report on Polytetrahydrofuran (PTMEG) ... including its definition, characterization, application, and industry ... exploration covers the worldwide business investigation, including ... covering macroeconomic environment & financial circumstance examination. ...
Breaking Biology Technology:Cirrascale® Expands Multi-GPU Peering Solutions with Support for New NVIDIA Tesla K80 Dual-GPU Accelerators 2Cirrascale® Expands Multi-GPU Peering Solutions with Support for New NVIDIA Tesla K80 Dual-GPU Accelerators 3American Process Inc. Announces Partnership to Develop Ultra-Strong, Lightweight Automotive Components Using Nanotechnology from Nature 2American Process Inc. Announces Partnership to Develop Ultra-Strong, Lightweight Automotive Components Using Nanotechnology from Nature 3PTMEG Market: 2019 Global Polytetrahydrofuran Industry Development Trends & Analysis Now at DeepResearchReports.com 2PTMEG Market: 2019 Global Polytetrahydrofuran Industry Development Trends & Analysis Now at DeepResearchReports.com 3
Cached News: