HOME >> BIOLOGY >> NEWS
2-step process filters evolution of genes of human and chimpanzee

Although the human and chimpanzee genomes are distinguished by 35 million differences in individual DNA "letters," only about 50,000 of those differences alter the sequences of proteins. Of those 50,000 differences, an estimated 5,000 may have adaptive consequences in the evolutionary divergence between these two species, according to a study published in the March 6, 2007, issue of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

Before such a new and beneficial mutation can take its place in the human genome it has to pass through a rigorous two-stepnegative and positivescreening process, say the study authors, evolutionary geneticists from the University of Chicago, the University of Tokyo and the University of Washington. Both steps focus on the most radical changes.

In step one, mutations, the genetic equivalent of typographical errors, are randomly introduced. When these mutations are still rare in the population, only strongly deleterious ones get weeded out through negative selection. The more radical mutations are more likely to be harmful and quickly removed. For those that are only slightly harmful, neutral or beneficial, the selective forces are weak and luck determines their fates.

In step two, a new mutation that has been fortunate enough to survive the initial elimination process, and confers some benefit, can then spread quickly through positive selection. The more radical the mutation, at this point, the faster it is likely to spread.

"We found that the same genetic changes that are unlikely to survive early negative selection are the ones that spread most quickly once they gain a foothold," said the studys senior author Chung-I Wu, Ph.D., professor of ecology and evolution at the University of Chicago. "To reach that conclusion, we needed to decouple the two steps of evolution and classify mutations into many different kinds."

The researchers used the very large survey of human ge
'"/>

Contact: John Easton
john.easton@uchospitals.edu
773-702-6241
University of Chicago Medical Center
5-Mar-2007


Page: 1 2 3

Related biology news :

1. Hepatitis C helicase unwinds DNA in a spring-loaded, 3-step process
2. N.C. A&T food scientist develops process for allergen-free peanuts
3. The UAB heads a European research project on proteases and pathological processes
4. Herpes virus hijacks DNA repair process
5. Molecular motors may speed nutrient processing
6. Study shows response to financial loss parallels brains processing of pain
7. A rainbow of methods promises insights into biological processes and diseases
8. Cancer scientists create human leukemia process to map how disease begins, progresses
9. Information processing in the central nervous system: the signalling system controlling movement
10. UCLA identifies new molecule involved in the bodys processing of dietary fat
11. Newly discovered platform for processing dietary fat

Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:


(Date:5/6/2017)... 5, 2017 RAM Group , ... new breakthrough in biometric authentication based on a ... properties to perform biometric authentication. These new sensors are ... created by Ram Group and its partners. This sensor ... supply chains and security. Ram Group is a ...
(Date:4/19/2017)... , April 19, 2017 The ... vendor landscape is marked by the presence of several ... however held by five major players - 3M Cogent, ... companies accounted for nearly 61% of the global military ... companies in the global military biometrics market boast global ...
(Date:4/17/2017)... -- NXT-ID, Inc. (NASDAQ: NXTD ) ("NXT-ID" or ... 2016 Annual Report on Form 10-K on Thursday April 13, 2017 ... ... Investor Relations section of the Company,s website at http://www.nxt-id.com  under ... http://www.sec.gov . 2016 Year Highlights: ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):
(Date:10/11/2017)... NJ (PRWEB) , ... October 11, 2017 , ... Personal eye wash is a basic ... one eye at a time. So which eye do you rinse first if a dangerous ... have Plum Duo Eye Wash with its unique dual eye piece. , “Whether ...
(Date:10/11/2017)... ROTTERDAM, the Netherlands and LAGUNA HILLS, ... that The Institute of Cancer Research, London ... will use MMprofilerâ„¢ with SKY92, SkylineDx,s prognostic tool to risk-stratify ... high-risk trial known as MUK nine . The University ... this trial, which is partly funded by Myeloma UK, and ...
(Date:10/10/2017)... (PRWEB) , ... October 10, 2017 , ... San Diego-based ... of its corporate rebranding initiative announced today. The bold new look is part ... as the company moves into a significant growth period. , It will also expand ...
(Date:10/10/2017)... Oct. 10, 2017 International research firm Parks Associates ... speak at the TMA 2017 Annual Meeting , October 11 in ... the residential home security market and how smart safety and security products ... Parks Associates: Smart ... "The residential security market ...
Breaking Biology Technology:
Cached News: