HOME >> BIOLOGY >> NEWS
Alcoholism, smoking and genetics among Plains American Indians

Alcoholism and smoking have a high rate of co-occurrence in the general population. Yet little is known about the co-morbidity of alcoholism and smoking among American Indians. In the March issue of Alcoholism: Clinical & Experimental Research, researchers examine patterns of alcohol and tobacco use among Plains American Indians, as well as the influence that a catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) functional polymorphism called Val158Met may have on these behaviors.

"The shared heritability between smoking and alcoholism, particularly in heavy smokers and heavy drinkers, indicates that some genes predispose individuals to both smoking and drinking," said Mary-Anne Enoch, a staff scientist in the Laboratory of Neurogenetics at the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism and corresponding author for the study. "Nicotine's effects on the brain occur mainly through nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, and alcohol acts on these same receptors to release dopamine, the 'pleasure' hormone in the brain's reward pathway."

Enoch added that the enzyme COMT plays an important role in the breakdown of dopamine and norepinephrine in the brain, its activity varying according to a common COMT polymorphism, Val158Met. "The Met allele results in a less efficient enzyme and therefore probably more dopamine and norepinephrine in the brain," she said. "The Met allele has also been associated with increased anxiety and neuroticism, increased emotionality in response to pain, and greater brain activation in response to unpleasant visual images."

Whereas studies of European men have shown that the Met allele is associated with late onset alcoholism and increased alcohol intake in social drinkers, Enoch and her colleagues have found that in American Indians the Met allele was protective against alcoholism, and the Val allele was the risk allele.

"The answer to this paradox may lie in the relationship between anxiety and drinking patterns
'"/>

Contact: Mary-Anne Enoch, M.D.
maenoch@niaaa.nih.gov
301-496-2727
Alcoholism: Clinical & Experimental Research
22-Feb-2006


Page: 1 2 3

Related biology news :

1. New mechanism links smoking to lung damage
2. Genes found for successful smoking cessation
3. NIDA study identifies genes that might help some people abstain from smoking
4. Research strengthens link between smoking, pancreatic cancer
5. Long-term marijuana smoking leads to respiratory complaints
6. Nicotine: The link between cigarette smoking and kidney disease progression?
7. Some brain-damaged patients quit smoking with ease, researchers report in Science
8. Exercise can reduce a smokers lung cancer risk, but quitting smoking is still most important
9. Smokers who cut back on cigarettes may negate benefit through compensatory smoking
10. High HPV concentrations combined with smoking significantly raise risks of cervical cancer
11. Heavy smoking cuts womens chance of pregnancy -- even with donated oocytes

Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:


(Date:6/28/2020)... ... 25, 2020 , ... In an upcoming episode scheduled for the fall of ... Testing solutions (POCT). Check local listings for more info. , Today, the majority of ... shipped to labs throughout the country. Results are then available several days later. Now, ...
(Date:6/23/2020)... ... June 23, 2020 , ... Kemp ... announced that the company has received ISO9001:2015 certification for the development and ... industries. The decision to pursue ISO9001 accreditation demonstrates Kemp’s commitment to a ...
(Date:6/23/2020)... TORONTO (PRWEB) , ... June 22, 2020 , ... The ... time. Typically, ligand binding assays (LBA) have dominated this area. However, the use of ... several years. , This now necessitates the question “How do you choose which approach ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):
(Date:7/1/2020)... , ... June 29, 2020 , ... ... to competitively procured purchasing contracts to its membership, recently named BioFit Engineered ... members with the opportunity to purchase ergonomic seating, cafeteria tables, book trucks and ...
(Date:6/28/2020)... ... 2020 , ... The Indoor Lab, a leading provider of sensor solutions for ... types to ensure cleanliness, distancing and occupancy with its patent pending WipeAway™ technology using ... will provide a health performance index system that scores all aspects of compliance similar ...
(Date:6/28/2020)... ROCKY HILL, Conn. (PRWEB) , ... June 25, ... ... systems company formed to advance photodynamic therapy for treating cancer, today announced the ... Buffalo, New York (“Roswell Park”). The agreement provides Lumeda globally exclusive rights ...
(Date:6/23/2020)... ... June 23, 2020 , ... Kerafast Inc. , developers ... announced the availability of the Delta-G-VSV Pseudotyping System for coronavirus research applications. The ... of SARS-CoV-2 viral entry and COVID-19 vaccine effectiveness at just biosafety level 2 ...
Breaking Biology Technology:
Cached News: