HOME >> BIOLOGY >> NEWS
Alcoholism, smoking and genetics among Plains American Indians

Alcoholism and smoking have a high rate of co-occurrence in the general population. Yet little is known about the co-morbidity of alcoholism and smoking among American Indians. In the March issue of Alcoholism: Clinical & Experimental Research, researchers examine patterns of alcohol and tobacco use among Plains American Indians, as well as the influence that a catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) functional polymorphism called Val158Met may have on these behaviors.

"The shared heritability between smoking and alcoholism, particularly in heavy smokers and heavy drinkers, indicates that some genes predispose individuals to both smoking and drinking," said Mary-Anne Enoch, a staff scientist in the Laboratory of Neurogenetics at the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism and corresponding author for the study. "Nicotine's effects on the brain occur mainly through nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, and alcohol acts on these same receptors to release dopamine, the 'pleasure' hormone in the brain's reward pathway."

Enoch added that the enzyme COMT plays an important role in the breakdown of dopamine and norepinephrine in the brain, its activity varying according to a common COMT polymorphism, Val158Met. "The Met allele results in a less efficient enzyme and therefore probably more dopamine and norepinephrine in the brain," she said. "The Met allele has also been associated with increased anxiety and neuroticism, increased emotionality in response to pain, and greater brain activation in response to unpleasant visual images."

Whereas studies of European men have shown that the Met allele is associated with late onset alcoholism and increased alcohol intake in social drinkers, Enoch and her colleagues have found that in American Indians the Met allele was protective against alcoholism, and the Val allele was the risk allele.

"The answer to this paradox may lie in the relationship between anxiety and drinking patterns
'"/>

Contact: Mary-Anne Enoch, M.D.
maenoch@niaaa.nih.gov
301-496-2727
Alcoholism: Clinical & Experimental Research
22-Feb-2006


Page: 1 2 3

Related biology news :

1. New mechanism links smoking to lung damage
2. Genes found for successful smoking cessation
3. NIDA study identifies genes that might help some people abstain from smoking
4. Research strengthens link between smoking, pancreatic cancer
5. Long-term marijuana smoking leads to respiratory complaints
6. Nicotine: The link between cigarette smoking and kidney disease progression?
7. Some brain-damaged patients quit smoking with ease, researchers report in Science
8. Exercise can reduce a smokers lung cancer risk, but quitting smoking is still most important
9. Smokers who cut back on cigarettes may negate benefit through compensatory smoking
10. High HPV concentrations combined with smoking significantly raise risks of cervical cancer
11. Heavy smoking cuts womens chance of pregnancy -- even with donated oocytes

Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:


(Date:4/24/2017)... Janice Kephart , former 9/11 ... Partners, LLP (IdSP) , today issues the following ... March 6, 2017 Executive Order: Protecting the ... be instilled with greater confidence, enabling the reactivation ... applications are suspended by until at least July ...
(Date:4/13/2017)... PUNE, India , April 13, 2017 According ... Identity Proofing, Identity Authentication, Identity Analytics, Identity Administration, and Authorization), Service, Authentication ... by MarketsandMarkets™, the IAM Market is expected to grow from USD 14.30 ... Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) of 17.3%. ... ...
(Date:4/6/2017)... Forecasts by Product Type (EAC), ... End-Use (Transportation & Logistics, Government & Public Sector, Utilities ... Generation Facility, Nuclear Power), Industrial, Retail, Business Organisation (BFSI), ... you looking for a definitive report on the $27.9bn ... ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):
(Date:10/9/2017)... ... 09, 2017 , ... The award-winning American Farmer television series will feature 3 ... airs Tuesdays at 8:30aET on RFD-TV. , With global population estimates nearing ten ... to continue to feed a growing nation. At the same time, many of our ...
(Date:10/9/2017)... (PRWEB) , ... October 09, ... ... published on October 5, 2017, in the medical journal, Epilepsia, Brain Sentinel’s ... the gold standard, video EEG, in detecting generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS) using ...
(Date:10/7/2017)... Oct. 6, 2017  The 2017 Nobel Prize ... scientists, Jacques Dubochet, Joachim Frank and ... cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) have helped to ... structural biology community. The winners worked with systems ... routinely produce highly resolved, three-dimensional images of protein ...
(Date:10/5/2017)... ... October 05, 2017 , ... LabRoots , the ... from around the world, is giving back to cancer research with a month-long promotion ... , Now through October 31, shoppers can use promo code PinkRibbon to get 10 ...
Breaking Biology Technology:
Cached News: