HOME >> BIOLOGY >> NEWS
Alcoholism, smoking and genetics among Plains American Indians

Alcoholism and smoking have a high rate of co-occurrence in the general population. Yet little is known about the co-morbidity of alcoholism and smoking among American Indians. In the March issue of Alcoholism: Clinical & Experimental Research, researchers examine patterns of alcohol and tobacco use among Plains American Indians, as well as the influence that a catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) functional polymorphism called Val158Met may have on these behaviors.

"The shared heritability between smoking and alcoholism, particularly in heavy smokers and heavy drinkers, indicates that some genes predispose individuals to both smoking and drinking," said Mary-Anne Enoch, a staff scientist in the Laboratory of Neurogenetics at the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism and corresponding author for the study. "Nicotine's effects on the brain occur mainly through nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, and alcohol acts on these same receptors to release dopamine, the 'pleasure' hormone in the brain's reward pathway."

Enoch added that the enzyme COMT plays an important role in the breakdown of dopamine and norepinephrine in the brain, its activity varying according to a common COMT polymorphism, Val158Met. "The Met allele results in a less efficient enzyme and therefore probably more dopamine and norepinephrine in the brain," she said. "The Met allele has also been associated with increased anxiety and neuroticism, increased emotionality in response to pain, and greater brain activation in response to unpleasant visual images."

Whereas studies of European men have shown that the Met allele is associated with late onset alcoholism and increased alcohol intake in social drinkers, Enoch and her colleagues have found that in American Indians the Met allele was protective against alcoholism, and the Val allele was the risk allele.

"The answer to this paradox may lie in the relationship between anxiety and drinking patterns
'"/>

Contact: Mary-Anne Enoch, M.D.
maenoch@niaaa.nih.gov
301-496-2727
Alcoholism: Clinical & Experimental Research
22-Feb-2006


Page: 1 2 3

Related biology news :

1. New mechanism links smoking to lung damage
2. Genes found for successful smoking cessation
3. NIDA study identifies genes that might help some people abstain from smoking
4. Research strengthens link between smoking, pancreatic cancer
5. Long-term marijuana smoking leads to respiratory complaints
6. Nicotine: The link between cigarette smoking and kidney disease progression?
7. Some brain-damaged patients quit smoking with ease, researchers report in Science
8. Exercise can reduce a smokers lung cancer risk, but quitting smoking is still most important
9. Smokers who cut back on cigarettes may negate benefit through compensatory smoking
10. High HPV concentrations combined with smoking significantly raise risks of cervical cancer
11. Heavy smoking cuts womens chance of pregnancy -- even with donated oocytes

Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:


(Date:11/19/2016)... -- Securus Technologies, a leading provider of civil and ... and monitoring, announced today that it has offered a ... independent technology judge determine who has the largest and ... calling platform, and the best customer service. ... what we do – which clearly is not the ...
(Date:11/15/2016)... Research and Markets has announced the addition of the ... their offering. ... The global bioinformatics market ... 6.21 Billion in 2016, growing at a CAGR of 21.1% during ... is driven by the growing demand for nucleic acid and protein ...
(Date:6/22/2016)... ANGELES , June 22, 2016 /PRNewswire/ ... identity management and verification solutions, has partnered ... edge software solutions for Visitor Management, Self-Service ... provides products that add functional enhancements ... partnership provides corporations and venues with an ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):
(Date:11/30/2016)... ... November 30, 2016 , ... ... magnet Voice Coil Actuator with a flexure design that ensures high alignment accuracy ... cost-effective pricing and is ideally suited where extreme precision is required, such as ...
(Date:11/30/2016)...  The Allen Institute for Cell Science has ... available collection of gene edited, fluorescently tagged human ... structures with unprecedented clarity. Distributed through the Coriell ... a crucial first step toward visualizing the dynamic ... human cells healthy and what goes wrong in ...
(Date:11/30/2016)... GREENWICH, Connecticut , November 30, 2016 ...   ... Aptuit, LLC today announced ... screening library. An additional 150,000 novel compounds have increased the ... selected to broaden the hit discovery capabilities of the company. ...
(Date:11/30/2016)... Research Triangle Park, North Carolina (PRWEB) , ... November 30, 2016 ... ... Chemistry (IUPAC) approved the names and symbols for four elements: nihonium (Nh), moscovium ... , Following a 5-month period of public review, the names earlier proposed by the ...
Breaking Biology Technology:
Cached News: