HOME >> BIOLOGY >> NEWS
Alcoholism, smoking and genetics among Plains American Indians

Alcoholism and smoking have a high rate of co-occurrence in the general population. Yet little is known about the co-morbidity of alcoholism and smoking among American Indians. In the March issue of Alcoholism: Clinical & Experimental Research, researchers examine patterns of alcohol and tobacco use among Plains American Indians, as well as the influence that a catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) functional polymorphism called Val158Met may have on these behaviors.

"The shared heritability between smoking and alcoholism, particularly in heavy smokers and heavy drinkers, indicates that some genes predispose individuals to both smoking and drinking," said Mary-Anne Enoch, a staff scientist in the Laboratory of Neurogenetics at the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism and corresponding author for the study. "Nicotine's effects on the brain occur mainly through nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, and alcohol acts on these same receptors to release dopamine, the 'pleasure' hormone in the brain's reward pathway."

Enoch added that the enzyme COMT plays an important role in the breakdown of dopamine and norepinephrine in the brain, its activity varying according to a common COMT polymorphism, Val158Met. "The Met allele results in a less efficient enzyme and therefore probably more dopamine and norepinephrine in the brain," she said. "The Met allele has also been associated with increased anxiety and neuroticism, increased emotionality in response to pain, and greater brain activation in response to unpleasant visual images."

Whereas studies of European men have shown that the Met allele is associated with late onset alcoholism and increased alcohol intake in social drinkers, Enoch and her colleagues have found that in American Indians the Met allele was protective against alcoholism, and the Val allele was the risk allele.

"The answer to this paradox may lie in the relationship between anxiety and drinking patterns
'"/>

Contact: Mary-Anne Enoch, M.D.
maenoch@niaaa.nih.gov
301-496-2727
Alcoholism: Clinical & Experimental Research
22-Feb-2006


Page: 1 2 3

Related biology news :

1. New mechanism links smoking to lung damage
2. Genes found for successful smoking cessation
3. NIDA study identifies genes that might help some people abstain from smoking
4. Research strengthens link between smoking, pancreatic cancer
5. Long-term marijuana smoking leads to respiratory complaints
6. Nicotine: The link between cigarette smoking and kidney disease progression?
7. Some brain-damaged patients quit smoking with ease, researchers report in Science
8. Exercise can reduce a smokers lung cancer risk, but quitting smoking is still most important
9. Smokers who cut back on cigarettes may negate benefit through compensatory smoking
10. High HPV concentrations combined with smoking significantly raise risks of cervical cancer
11. Heavy smoking cuts womens chance of pregnancy -- even with donated oocytes

Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:


(Date:6/2/2016)... YORK , June 2, 2016   The Weather ... is announcing Watson Ads, an industry-first capability in which consumers ... by being able to ask questions via voice or text ... Marketers have long sought ... the consumer, that can be personal, relevant and valuable; and ...
(Date:5/20/2016)... -- VoiceIt is excited to announce its new marketing ... working together, VoiceIt and VoicePass will offer an ... slightly different approaches to voice biometrics, collaboration between ... Both companies ... "This marketing and technology partnership allows VoiceIt ...
(Date:5/3/2016)... Lithuania , May 3, 2016  Neurotechnology, ... released the MegaMatcher Automated Biometric Identification System ... of large-scale multi-biometric projects. MegaMatcher ABIS can process ... accuracy using any combination of fingerprint, face or ... MegaMatcher SDK and MegaMatcher Accelerator ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):
(Date:6/27/2016)...   Ginkgo Bioworks , a leading organism ... today awarded as one of the World Economic ... most innovative companies. Ginkgo Bioworks is engineering biology ... world in the nutrition, health and consumer goods ... customers including Fortune 500 companies to design microbes ...
(Date:6/24/2016)... DIEGO , June 24, 2016 ... more sensitively detects cancers susceptible to PARP inhibitors ... circulating tumor cells (CTCs). The new test has ... HRD-targeted therapeutics in multiple cancer types. ... targeting DNA damage response pathways, including PARP, ATM, ...
(Date:6/24/2016)... ... ... Researchers at the Universita Politecnica delle Marche in Ancona combed medical journal articles ... findings are the subject of a new article on the Surviving Mesothelioma website. ... blood, lung fluid or tissue of mesothelioma patients that can help point doctors to ...
(Date:6/23/2016)... WI (PRWEB) , ... June 23, 2016 , ... ... supplements, is pleased to announce the launch of their brand, UP4™ Probiotics, into ... for over 35 years, is proud to add Target to its list of ...
Breaking Biology Technology:
Cached News: