David Ron, of the New York University School of Medicine, and his colleagues found in mice that an enzyme known as GCN2 kinase sets off a cascade of events that relays information to the brain about the amino acid content of foods, enabling the animals to adjust their intake in favor of a more balanced meal. The same enzyme in yeast also acts as an amino acid sensor, earlier work has shown.
"This ancient pathway in mice recognizes drops in blood amino acid levels that occur following consumption of food with an imbalanced composition," said Ron. "That recognition culminates in a behavioral response that limits consumption of the imbalanced food and favors, by default, a more balanced diet."
The new findings confirm and extend a recent report by Dorothy Gietzen at the University of California, Davis, detailing the same pathway in rats.
Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins. While many of the 20 amino acids can be synthesized internally, eight "essential" amino acids must be obtained from food. Scientists have long known that omnivorous animals will consume substantially less of a meal lacking a single essential amino acid, in comparison to an otherwise identical meal that is nutritionally complete.
To explore the role of GCN2 kinase in this feeding behavior, the researchers inactivated the enzyme in the brains of mice. GCN2 kinase, known to be an important amino acid sensor, elicits a stress response by modifying a second protein called translation initiation factor 2 (eIF2a).