HOME >> BIOLOGY >> NEWS
Complexity constrains evolution of human brain genes

o sequence several thousand genes expressed in the brain of the macaque monkey and compare them with available genomic sequences from human, chimpanzee, and mice.

What they found was that the "more advanced" species had faster overall rates of evolution. So, on average, the genes from humans and chimpanzees changed faster than genes from monkeys, which changed faster than those from mice.

They explained the trend as a correlate of smaller population size in the more advanced species. Species with smaller population size can more easily escape the harsh scrutiny of natural selection.

When they compared the pace of evolution among genes expressed in the brain, however, the order was reversed. When calibrated against the genomic average, brain genes in humans evolved more slowly than in other primates, which were slower than mice.

"We would expect positive selection to work most effectively on tissue-specific genes, where there would be fewer conflicting requirements," says Wu. "For example, genes expressed only in male reproductive tissues have evolved very rapidly."

Brains, however, "are intriguing in this respect," Wu says. Genes that are expressed only in the brain evolved more slowly than those that are expressed in the brain as well as other tissues, and those genes evolved more slowly than genes expressed throughout the rest of the organism.

The authors attribute the slowdown to mounting complexity of interactions within the brain. "We know that proteins with more interacting partners evolve more slowly," Wu said. "Mutations that disrupt existing interactions aren't tolerated."

Although the gene sequences from human and chimpanzee remain very similar, previous studies in tissues other than the brain have shown that gene expression varies widely. Other studies have found that, within the brain, the abundance of expressed genes per neuron appears to be greater in humans.

"On t
'"/>

Contact: John Easton
john.easton@uchospitals.edu
773-702-6241
University of Chicago Medical Center
25-Dec-2006


Page: 1 2 3

Related biology news :

1. Clones on task serve greater good, evolutionary study shows
2. New textbook illuminates the close links between evolutionary and molecular biology
3. Coelacanth fossil sheds light on fin-to-limb evolution
4. Genomics study provides insight into the evolution of unique human traits
5. New proteomics research promises to revolutionize biomedical discovery
6. Species detectives track unseen evolution
7. Study identifies energy efficiency as reason for evolution of upright walking
8. Clues to future evolution of HIV come from African green monkeys
9. Tumor painting revolutionizes fight against cancer
10. Revolutionary global environment fund announces $50M expansion
11. A first-principles model of early evolution

Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
TAG: Complexity constrains evolution human brain genes

(Date:10/18/2014)... In a sample of patients with undiagnosed, suspected genetic ... associated with a higher molecular diagnostic yield than traditional ... JAMA . The study is being released to ... meeting. , Exome sequencing, which sequences the protein­coding region ... genetic material present in a cell or organism), has ...
(Date:10/16/2014)... on the human body. Battles are won, lost ... cancer, this stalemate—known as tumor dormancy—can last up ... phenomena that is poorly understood. , A ... Salvatore Torquato, a Professor of Chemistry at Princeton ... dormancy and the switch to a malignant state. ...
(Date:10/16/2014)... infections and worldwide claims the lives of 160,000 ... University have succeeded in developing a promising vaccination ... , Xavier Saelens (VIB/UGent): "We discovered a new ... development of a novel approach to vaccination against ... small children and elderly people." , RSV: ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):Study examines type of exome sequencing and molecular diagnostic yield 2Study examines type of exome sequencing and molecular diagnostic yield 3Modeling tumor dormancy 2New perspectives for development of an RSV vaccine 2
(Date:10/19/2014)... The Asian Orthopedic braces and support systems ... analysis and forecast of revenue. The Orthopedic braces and support ... $416.5 million by 2018, at a developing CAGR of 4.4% ... the Asian Orthopedic braces and support systems market, to get ... a glimpse of the segmentation of orthopedic braces and support ...
(Date:10/18/2014)... The report "1,6-Hexanediol Market by Application ... 2019", analyzes the global market on the basis ... industry details such as the key drivers, current ... , Browse 81 Market Data Tables and 29 ... on “1,6-Hexanediol Market by Application and by Geography ...
(Date:10/18/2014)... The Biomass Power industry ... years to 2014. The industry's expansion has been propelled ... that encouraged the use of biomass power. Furthermore, the ... which require local utilities to generate electricity from renewable ... Increased campaigning for green technology also influenced industry performance ...
(Date:10/17/2014)... WASHINGTON, Oct. 16—As in Alice,s journey through the looking-glass ... behave in surprising and unexpected ways, including a new ... , As reported today in The Optical Society,s (OSA) ... have demonstrated, for the first time, a new type ... and instead reflects infrared light by using an unusual ...
Breaking Biology Technology:The Asian Orthopedic braces and support systems market is estimated to grow to around $416.5 million by 2018 - New Report by MicroMarket Monitor 2The Asian Orthopedic braces and support systems market is estimated to grow to around $416.5 million by 2018 - New Report by MicroMarket Monitor 3The Asian Orthopedic braces and support systems market is estimated to grow to around $416.5 million by 2018 - New Report by MicroMarket Monitor 41,6-Hexanediol Market Projected to Reach $916.1 Million at a CAGR of 8.3% by 2019 – Report by MarketsandMarkets 21,6-Hexanediol Market Projected to Reach $916.1 Million at a CAGR of 8.3% by 2019 – Report by MarketsandMarkets 31,6-Hexanediol Market Projected to Reach $916.1 Million at a CAGR of 8.3% by 2019 – Report by MarketsandMarkets 41,6-Hexanediol Market Projected to Reach $916.1 Million at a CAGR of 8.3% by 2019 – Report by MarketsandMarkets 5Biomass Power in the US Industry Market Research Report from IBISWorld Has Been Updated 2Biomass Power in the US Industry Market Research Report from IBISWorld Has Been Updated 3Magnetic mirrors enable new technologies by reflecting light in uncanny ways 2Magnetic mirrors enable new technologies by reflecting light in uncanny ways 3Magnetic mirrors enable new technologies by reflecting light in uncanny ways 4
Cached News: