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Evolving defenses rapidly suppress male killers

In the game of survival, anything goes--even the selective extermination of males. Male killing is the preferred strategy for a diverse group of bacteria that infect insects and other arthropods. Aside from its tabloid appeal, male killing offers biologists a platform for investigating genetic conflict--evolutionary battles between competing elements within the same genome. Male-killing bacteria are passed from mother to offspring, but only males die from infection, suggesting that males harbor genetic elements that allow them to succumb to infection. In keeping with evolutionary theory, these selfish genetic elements, which spread at the expense of the organism, should engender counteracting elements that promote male survival, but until now scant evidence has linked the evolution of host suppressors to selfish elements that mediate male killing. However, in PLoS Biology today, Emily Hornett, Greg Hurst, and colleagues report the first case of total suppression of male killing in a butterfly, Hypolimnas bolina, infected with the wBol1 strain of the male-killing bacterium Wolbachia.

H. bolina is found throughout the Indo-Pacific. Because wBol1 infection kills males in Polynesia but not in Southeast Asia, breeding individuals from each region could reveal genetic elements in the different populations that favor life over death. And because infected females transmit infection directly to offspring, breeding could also introduce wBol1 genes (and infection) onto the butterfly genetic background (a technique called introgression). The authors therefore carried out breeding experiments to test whether male-killing wBol1 taken from Moorea in Polynesia lose that ability against Southeast Asian males with a Thai or Philippine genetic background, and whether benign wBol1 from Thailand or the Philippines turn lethal against males with a Moorean genetic background. They mated infected Moorean females with Thai and Philippine males, and mated infected Thai and Ph
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Contact: Natalie Bouaravong
press@plos.org
415-568-3445
Public Library of Science
21-Aug-2006


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