Key brain regulatory gene shows evolution in humans

y; Matthew Rockman of Princeton University; Matthew Hahn of Indiana University; Nicole Soranzo of University College London; and Fritz Zimprich of the Medical University of Vienna in Austria. The research was sponsored by the National Science Foundation and NASA.

"We focused on the prodynorphin gene because it has been shown to play a central role in so many interesting processes in the brain," said Wray. "These include a person's sense of how well they feel about themselves, their memory and their perception of pain. And it's known that people who don't make enough of prodynorphin are vulnerable to drug addiction, schizophrenia, bipolar disorders and a form of epilepsy. So, we reasoned that humans might uniquely need to make more of this substance, perhaps because our brains are bigger, or because they function differently.

"Also importantly, the part of the gene that produces the prodynorphin protein shows no variation within humans, or even between humans and any of the great apes," said Wray, who is a professor of biology. "So, if we found any variation in this gene due to evolution, it was likely to be in its regulation. And our premise is that the easiest way to generate evolutionary change is to alter regulation."

In their studies, the researchers analyzed the sequence structure of the PDYN promoter segment in humans and in seven species of non-human primates -- chimpanzees, bonobos, gorillas, orangutans, baboons, pig-tailed macaques and rhesus monkeys. They found significant mutational changes in the regulatory sequence leading to humans that indicated preservation due to positive evolutionary selection. They also found an "evolution-by-association," in which sequences near the regulatory segment showed greater mutational change -- as if they were "dragged along" with the evolving regulatory sequence.

In contrast, the researchers found that the DNA segment that coded for the PDYN protein itself -- as well as other sites spread

Contact: Dennis Meredith
Duke University

Page: 1 2 3 4

Related biology news :

1. Invasion of the brain tumors
2. Preclinical study links gene to brain aneurysm formation
3. Gene variant is associated with brain anatomy, clinical course of ADHD
4. Human knowledge is based upon directed connectivity between brain areas
5. A sensory organ, not the brain, differentiates male and female behavior in some mammals
6. Reading ability protects brain from lead exposure
7. Strength of connections between brain regions may affect an adolescents response to peer influence
8. Females more prone to brain damage from alcohol abuse
9. Prenatal alcohol exposure alters brain activity in the frontal-striatal areas
10. Drug protects brain cells in Huntingtons disease model, researchers find
11. Steroids, not songs, spur growth of brain regions in sparrows

Post Your Comments:

(Date:3/29/2016)... 2016 LegacyXChange, Inc. (OTC: ... SelectaDNA/CSI Protect are pleased to announce our successful effort ... variety of writing instruments, ensuring athletes signatures against counterfeiting ... from athletes on LegacyXChange will be assured of ongoing ... Bill Bollander , CEO states, "By ...
(Date:3/22/2016)... PUNE, India , March 22, 2016 ... new market research report "Electronic Sensors Market for ... Fingerprint, Proximity, & Others), Application (Communication & ... and Geography - Global Forecast to 2022", ... consumer industry is expected to reach USD ...
(Date:3/21/2016)... , March 22, 2016 ... recognition with passcodes for superior security   ... a leading provider of secure digital communications services, today ... biometric technology and offer enterprise customers, particularly those in ... facial recognition and voice authentication within a mobile app, ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):
(Date:6/27/2016)... ... June 27, 2016 , ... ... medical technologies, services and solutions to the healthcare market. The company's primary focus ... distribution, manufacturing, sales and marketing strategies that are necessary to help companies efficiently ...
(Date:6/24/2016)... DIEGO , June 24, 2016 ... more sensitively detects cancers susceptible to PARP inhibitors ... circulating tumor cells (CTCs). The new test has ... HRD-targeted therapeutics in multiple cancer types. ... targeting DNA damage response pathways, including PARP, ATM, ...
(Date:6/23/2016)... 2016   Boston Biomedical , an industry ... to target cancer stemness pathways, announced that its ... Drug Designation from the U.S. Food and Drug ... including gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) cancer. Napabucasin is an ... cancer stemness pathways by targeting STAT3, and is ...
(Date:6/23/2016)... Prostate Cancer Foundation (PCF) is pleased to announce 24 new Young Investigator ... Members of the Class of 2016 were selected from a pool of 128 ... About the Class of 2016 PCF Young Investigators ... ... ...
Breaking Biology Technology:
Cached News: