Coyle added later: "There's no doubt that Armstrong started with a strong genetic makeup, but he maximized his abilities and got where his is through dedication and hard training."
The study, entitled "Improved muscular efficiency displayed as 'Tour de France' champion matures," appears in the June issue of the Journal of Applied Physiology, published by the American Physiological Society. The research was conducted by Edward F. Coyle, professor at the Human Performance Laboratory, Department of Kinesiology and Health Education, University of Texas at Austin.
Publisher's note: The research paper by Edward Coyle on Lance Armstrong is being made available at no charge to the public by the American Physiological Society, publisher of the Journal of Applied Physiology: http://jap.physiology.org/cgi/content/full/98/6/2191.
* McMaster study sees gains from different cycling training approach
Another study in the June issue considers at a different approach to training: "Six sessions of sprint interval training increases muscle oxidative potential and cycle endurance capacity in humans," by Kirsten A. Burgomaster, Martin J. Gibala et al., McMaster University, Hamilton, Canada.
In an editorial, Ed Coyle noted that the Burgomaster et al. study "reminds us of the 'potency' of very intense exercise, performed as 30-second sprints, for stimulating metabolic adaptations within skeletal muscle," in this case totaling as little as 15 minutes over 2 weeks.
The McMaster group "employed 'sprint interval training' on a bicycle ergometer, involving 30-second sprints performed 'all out,' with 4 minutes of recovery," Coyle summarized.
"Recreationally active college students performed only 2-4 minutes of exercise per session and just six sessions over 2 weeks. The remarkable find of this study was that this smal