Researchers at the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary and Department of Biostatistics at Harvard Medical School studied 681 male twins from the National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council World War II Veteran Twin Registry. To determine genetic and environmental risk factors for Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD), twins were surveyed for a prior diagnosis of AMD and underwent an eye examination, fundus photography, and food frequency and risk factor questionnaires. The study included 222 twins with intermediate and late-stage AMD and 459 twins with no signs of the disease.
"Current smokers had a 1.9-fold increased risk of developing AMD, while past smokers had about a 1.7-fold increased risk," said Johanna M. Seddon, M.D., director of the Epidemiology Unit at the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary and an associate professor of ophthalmology at Harvard Medical School. "We also found that increased intake of fish reduced the risk of AMD, particularly if they ate two more servings per week. Dietary omega-3 fatty intake was also inversely associated with AMD. This study of twins provides further evidence that cigarette smoking increases risk while fish consumption and omega-3 fatty acid intake reduce risk of AMD."
AMD is the leading cause of irreversible visual impairment and blindness
among persons aged 60 and older. With the elderly population steadily
growing, the burden related to this loss of visual f
Contact: Mary E. Leach
Harvard Medical School