HOME >> BIOLOGY >> NEWS
Unified physics theory explains animals' running, flying and swimming

e. "It doesn't matter whether the animal has eight legs, four legs, two, even if it swims with no legs."

First conceived by Bejan and published in 1996, the constructal law arises from the basic principle that flow systems evolve so as to minimize imperfections -- energy wasted to friction or other forms of resistance -- such that the least amount of useful energy is lost.

The theory applies to virtually everything that moves, Bejan said. For example, his earlier work has examined how the law explains traffic flows, the cooling of small-scale electronics and river currents.

The researchers, funded by the National Science Foundation, report that the constructal law predicts universal relationships between animals' body mass and speed, as well as the frequency and force of the strides, beats or undulations that propel their bodies forward.

"Running, swimming and flying occur in vastly different physical environments and, likewise, involve quite different body mechanics," Bejan said of the new application of constructal law. "Nonetheless, there are strong convergences in certain functional characteristics of runners, swimmers and fliers."

For example, the stride frequency of running vertebrates bears the same relationship to the animals' mass as does the rate at which fish swim. Similarly, the velocity of runners conforms to the same principles as the speed of birds in flight.

The force generated by the muscular "motors" of runners, swimmers and fliers also conforms with surprisingly little variation to a universal value dependent only on muscle mass, Marden said. Why this relationship should be so had remained mysterious, he said.

In the absence of a unifying theory for such design features, biologists had looked to mechanical constraints for an answer, the researchers said. Many authors have suggested that effects of scale in locomotion stem from biomechanical safety factors: the need to avoid premature failu
'"/>

Contact: Kendall Morgan
kendall.morgan@duke.edu
919-660-8414
Duke University
30-Dec-2005


Page: 1 2 3 4 5

Related biology news :

1. Unraveling the physics of DNAs double helix
2. Pendulum love, science class gender gaps, musical mind mirrors, and unparticle physics
3. Manchester to spearhead 8.3 million particle physics project
4. Press conferences at the years largest physics meeting
5. Largest physics meeting of the year, in Denver
6. Protein folding physics, nanohandles, sunscreen for algae and classical quantum weirdness
7. Technique used commonly in physics finds application in neuroscience
8. What do Racquel Welch and quantum physics have in common?
9. APS physics tip sheet #62
10. Biggest physics meeting of the year
11. APS physics tip sheet #57

Post Your Comments:
(Date:10/31/2014)... Geologists are letting the air out of a nagging mystery ... have long speculated as to why animal species didn,t flourish ... to prosper at the end of the Proterozoic period, about ... stretch before that, when most researchers think there also was ... so great then, after all. , In a study published ...
(Date:10/31/2014)... University of Adelaide-led project has developed a new test ... against the H5N1 strain of avian influenza virus or ... , This is a significant step in the fight ... is widespread in the poultry populations of South East ... concern because of its possible transmission to humans and ...
(Date:10/30/2014)... Mich. – When most animals begin life, cells immediately ... a vital organ. However, mammals, including humans, are special. ... different first choice – to become the protective placenta ... during this critical first step that research from Michigan ... in the current issue of PLOS Genetics ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):Lack of oxygen delayed the rise of animals on Earth 2New step towards eradication of H5N1 bird flu 2Identifying the source of stem cells 2
(Date:10/30/2014)... James Sherley says he has been working ... cell technology since his days as a principal investigator at ... late 1990’s. Sherley founded the ASCTC as a new ... the intellectual property developed in Sherley’s research over the years ... of Technology (MIT), and more recently as a senior scientist ...
(Date:10/30/2014)... UAE (PRWEB) October 30, 2014 Grace Century ... Dr. James A. Manganello, Chairman of the Board, to the ... Bahamas. The appointment was made by the Ministry of ... September 24th, 2014. , More than a year ... Research Bill , Prime Minister Perry Christie said the government ...
(Date:10/30/2014)... one of the key challenges in the development of ... physicists. , In a paper published today (28 October) ... colleagues show how to make a new type of ... devices, such as high-precision sensors and specialised superfast computers, ... But the methods for trapping these tiny particles are ...
(Date:10/27/2014)... 2014 The Italian company ... and sell its artificial "lower limb", after the ...      (Photo: http://photos.prnewswire.com/prnh/20141027/713097 ) ... the definitive judgement has arrived: Roadrunnerfoot, the small ... accessible hi-tech prostheses with composite materials, has won ...
Breaking Biology Technology:Boston’s Adult Stem Cell Technology Center, LLC Introduces A New Technology for Monitoring Previously Elusive Adult Stem Cells 2Boston’s Adult Stem Cell Technology Center, LLC Introduces A New Technology for Monitoring Previously Elusive Adult Stem Cells 3Boston’s Adult Stem Cell Technology Center, LLC Introduces A New Technology for Monitoring Previously Elusive Adult Stem Cells 4Grace Century’s Stem Cell Biobank Project Announces Chairman’s Appointment to National Stem Cell Ethics Committee of The Bahamas 2Grace Century’s Stem Cell Biobank Project Announces Chairman’s Appointment to National Stem Cell Ethics Committee of The Bahamas 3Italian Lower Limb Prosthesis Company Wins Lawsuit Against German Giant Ottobock 2
Cached News: