HOME >> BIOLOGY >> NEWS
Vax and Pax: Taking turns to build an eye

Opposing ball clubs don't take the field at the same time, and neither do teams of proteins responsible for creating the eye. While one team builds the retina, in adjacent cellular turf the opponents are busy constructing the cord that carries visual signals to the brain. And these guys aren't supposed to mingle.

That's why researchers at the Salk Institute for Biological Studies were surprised to find the respective team captains--Vax2, a protein that along with Vax1 builds the optic nerve cord, and Pax6, a protein that drives retinal fate--playing on the same field. That puzzle is explained in a forthcoming paper in Genes and Development.

Earlier studies from the laboratory of Greg Lemke, Ph.D., professor in Salk's Molecular Neurobiology Laboratory, had shown that Vax2 antagonized Pax6. "We knew that Vax1 and 2 acted together to inactivate Pax6. That's how you get an optic nerve--by preventing it from becoming a retina," explains Lemke. The only problem was that later on both Vax2 and Pax6 were co-expressed in the same cells. "If Vax2 was repressing Pax6 this seemed inconsistent," he says.

Both proteins bind DNA and function in a cell's nucleus to switch genes on and off. Pax6 regulates the development of the retina, while Vax2 ensures that the optic nerve gets built. Finding both proteins in the same nucleus would make about as much sense as having runners for the Giants and the Dodgers on base at the same time.

Analyzing eye development in both mouse and chick tissues, Lemke and former postdoctoral fellow Jin Woo Kim, Ph.D., solved the mystery. Stina Mui, a former graduate student in the Lemke lab had originally observed Vax2 in the cytoplasm of cultured cell lines and Kim had taken on the task of figuring out why. He showed that Vax2 protein is indeed expressed in the same retinal cells as Pax6, but that Vax2 shuttles in and out of the nucleus in response to a signaling molecule known as Sonic hedgehog.

"Va
'"/>

Contact: Gina Kirchweger
kirchweger@salk.edu
858-453-4100 x1340
Salk Institute
14-Oct-2006


Page: 1 2 3

Related biology news :

1. Taking a supplement of glycine helps prevent degenerative diseases such as arthrosis or osteoporosis
2. Taking heart failure to the MAT1
3. Taking chips to the next level of gene hunting
4. Taking evolutions temperature: Researchers pinpoint the energy it takes to make a species
5. Taking a bite out of a fellow worker helps wasps recruit new foragers
6. Taking a break from fractures: A closer look at vitamin D
7. Taking a flying jump
8. Taking the piste out of Alpine vegetation
9. Taking the next step toward growing our own fuel
10. OHSU turns mouse into factory for human liver cells
11. Leukemia drug turns mini-molecules up, cancer genes down

Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
TAG: Vax and Pax Taking turns build eye

(Date:8/28/2014)... Clinic researcher and his collaborators have developed an online ... process of re-engineering cells for biomedical investigation. CellNet is ... to aid stem cell engineering. Details of CellNet and ... two back-to-back papers in the journal Cell . ... uses for all types of cell-based investigations and can ...
(Date:8/28/2014)... Athens, Ga. The support of peer groups ... effective breastfeeding programs, according to recent University of ... mothers in the Athens-Clarke County area determined that ... the outcomes of mothers of infants. , "Mothers ... be successful at breastfeeding," said study co-author Alex ...
(Date:8/28/2014)... A unique method for delivering compounds that ... HIV and AIDS may be possible, thanks ... Agricultural Sciences., A semi-soft vaginal suppository made ... loaded with the antiviral drug Tenofovir provides ... against the spread of sexually transmitted infections ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):New tool aids stem cell engineering for medical research 2Breastfeeding study shows need for effective peer counseling programs 2Sensory-tested drug-delivery vehicle could limit spread of HIV, AIDS 2Sensory-tested drug-delivery vehicle could limit spread of HIV, AIDS 3
(Date:8/28/2014)... “This kit has an improved extraction efficiency ... to 150 ppb,” said Mark Tess, PhD, Mycotoxin Product Manager ... plant owners and USDA-GIPSA inspection agencies that have a need ... take place in a matter of minutes with nothing but ... the feed and grain before accepting it, but they no ...
(Date:8/28/2014)... August 28, 2014 The ability for ... culture that will allow individuals to perform at the ... important for employers looking to compete in this post–recession ... embracing this trend, as the sector increasingly focuses on ... company, which will have real results on the organization's ...
(Date:8/28/2014)... 2014  Armetheon, Inc. ( www.armetheon.com ), a ... late-stage cardiovascular drug candidates, today announced that it ... of financing. The Series A round was co-led ... participation from investors that included Atheneos Capital and ... Larry Hsu , the founder of Impax Laboratories. ...
(Date:8/28/2014)... Earlier this month, a report was ... the U.S. Air Force on the performance of vehicles ... this type of fuel made from mustard seeds, offered ... to America’s Eco friendly future. In fact, every branch ... become independent of foreign oil over the next few ...
Breaking Biology Technology:Klein Hersh International Leads Philadelphia Area Life Science Industry in Company Culture 2Klein Hersh International Leads Philadelphia Area Life Science Industry in Company Culture 3Armetheon Completes $7.0 Million Series A Financing 2Armetheon Completes $7.0 Million Series A Financing 3Can Small Farmers and a New Seed Based Biofuel “Green” the World? Major Universities and Even the U.S. Air Force Seem to Think So 2Can Small Farmers and a New Seed Based Biofuel “Green” the World? Major Universities and Even the U.S. Air Force Seem to Think So 3Can Small Farmers and a New Seed Based Biofuel “Green” the World? Major Universities and Even the U.S. Air Force Seem to Think So 4Can Small Farmers and a New Seed Based Biofuel “Green” the World? Major Universities and Even the U.S. Air Force Seem to Think So 5
Cached News: