The drug combination strategy known as highly active antiretrovial therapy (HAART) can significantly reduce viral levels and help maintain health in HIV-infected individuals, but a significant number can develop lipodystrophy. Typical symptoms of the syndrome may include a loss of subcutaneous fat in the face, arms, and legs; increased fat deposits in the abdomen and upper back; changes in cholesterol and other blood lipids; and insulin resistance.
"The metabolic complications of this condition are becoming more significant as patients spend more time on HAART," says Colleen Hadigan, MD, MPH, of the MGH Neuroendocrine Unit and Program in Nutritional Metabolism, the report's lead author. "For example, we now know that 14 percent of men on this therapy may develop type 2 diabetes, which is four times the usual risk; and concerns are also increasing about the related risk of heart disease."
Although previous studies have examined the effect of rosiglitazone and similar medications on HIV lipodystrophy, the results have been inconclusive. Since patients with the syndrome may have a variety of associated symptoms, the current study was limited to participants who had developed insulin resistance. The 27 enrolled patients were randomized to receive daily doses of either rosiglitazone or a placebo, and neither participants nor the researchers knew who was receiving the active medication.