The high-fat breakfasts consisted of a bun, margarine, jam, cake and orange juice. A control or "low-fat breakfast" that included a low-fat bun and yogurt was also tested. Four different margarines were used and buns and the cakes were baked with these margarines.
Factor VIIa levels were calculated by subtracting the levels of factor VIIa taken before the meal and levels taken at 1 and 3 p.m.
The Factor VIIa responses rose significantly -- about 11 to 16 milli unit (mU/mL) -- in those who ate the high-fat diets. In contrast, levels were lowered by about 6 mU/ml in the control diet.
"But most importantly, there were no differences among the fat-rich breakfasts," according to Mennen. "The results of our trial support the view that the factor VIIa response to a high dietary fat intake is independent of the type of fat," says Mennen, who adds that this response would probably occur after any fat-rich meal, not just breakfast.
He stresses that there is not enough information to know if a fat-rich meal increases a person's risk of heart disease directly, since the study only looked at the association between fat and factor VIIa.
"It is not clear if factor VIIa is a causal risk factor for heart disease, but if it were, this would mean that individuals would be at risk for heart attack after a fat-rich meal," he says.
Co-authors are Dr. Moniek de Maat; Dr. Gert Meijer; Dr. Peter Zock; Dr. Diederick Grobbee, Dr. Frans Kok; Dr. Cornelis Kluft; and Dr. Evert Schouten.