Her study examined the common reasoning behind the discrepancy by using patient information from the National Hospital Discharge Survey for 1988 and 1998. The common explanations are: 1) women do not have the appropriate diagnoses, 2) they have complicating conditions that made them a poor risk 3) they are too elderly and frail to benefit, and 4) the surgery carries a greater risk of mortality for women. None of these explanations was supported, suggesting that the real explanation may be a gender bias. Controlling for primary diagnoses of heart attack, obstructed blood flow to the heart, or angina had little effect on the gender disparity. Data from 1998 showed that among patients with heart attacks who received bypass, there were only 59 women recipients for every 100 men who received bypass surgery. Women with comorbid conditions, i.e. diabetes or hypertension, were found to have significantly more conservative treatment decisions than men with the same conditions. Similarly, women were twice as likely not to receive the surgery as compared to men in the same age group; for example, women in their 40s experienced over a three-fold risk of not receiving the surgery over men in their 40s. Medical literature
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