Researchers say criterion for diagnosing child abuse based on faulty evidence

WINSTON-SALEM, N.C. At least one of the "definitive" criteria used to diagnose child abuse may be wrong, report researchers from Wake Forest University Baptist Medical Center in the current issue of the British Medical Journal.

"If you read the medical literature, certain eye findings have been considered diagnostic for shaken baby syndrome," says Patrick E. Lantz, M.D., a forensic pathologist at Wake Forest University Baptist Medical Center. "This isn't supported by objective scientific evidence and could result in innocent caregivers going to jail."

Lantz and colleagues researched published reports about perimacular retinal folds, which is a buckling of the retina, the light-sensitive membrane that lines the back of the eye. The injury has been reported in shaken baby syndrome, caused by vigorous shaking of an infant or young child. The shaking may cause bleeding around the brain and in the eyes, resulting in blindness, and can also result in brain damage leading to death.

"Statements in the medical literature indicate that perimacular retinal folds result from the movement of the gel within the eye when an infant or young child is shaken, and that they have no other cause in young children with head injuries," said Lantz. "But our literature review showed that this conclusion is not based on scientifically valid comparative or experimental studies." Lantz and colleagues researched the issue after being involved in the case of a 14-month-old-child who died with perimacular retinal folds and other injuries. The child's father reported that a television set had toppled over, landing on the child's head. However, because of the diagnosis of perimacular retinal folds and hemorrhages, Child Protective Services suspected child abuse and removed a sibling from the home.

"Our investigation found no indication of child abuse other than the eye findings," said Lantz.

A review of the current medical literature showed that the condi


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