Specifically, the three techniques demonstrated significant differences in region-of-interest image summaries of normal versus abnormal breasts for EIS, across diagnostic groups for NIR, and for MIS when analysis was restricted to lesions larger than one centimeter. The electromagnetic imaging modalities appeared even more accurate when all are used in concert.
EIS: This painless test uses a very low voltage electrode system to examine how the breast tissue conducts and stores electricity. Living cell membranes carry an electric potential that affect the way a current flows, and different cancer cells have different electrical characteristics.
MIS: This exam involves the propagation of very low levels (1,000 times less than a cell phone) of microwave energy through breast tissue to measure electrical properties. This technique is particularly sensitive to water. Generally, tumors have been found to have more water and blood than regular tissue.
NIR: Infrared light is sensitive to blood, so by sending infrared light through breast tissue with a fiber optic array, the researchers are able to locate and quantify regions of oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin. This might help detect early tumor growth and characterize the stage of a tumor by learning about its vascular makeup.