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High intake of dietary fiber not associated with reduced risk of colorectal cancer

In an analysis combining data from 13 studies, high intake of dietary fiber was not associated with reduced risk of colorectal cancer, according to a study in the December 14 issue of JAMA.

Dietary fiber has been hypothesized to reduce the risk of colorectal cancer, according to background information in the article. However, the results of numerous epidemiological studies have been inconsistent. Ecological correlation studies and many case-control studies have found an inverse association between dietary fiber intake and risk of colorectal cancer. But most prospective cohort studies have found no association between dietary fiber intake and risk of colorectal cancer or adenomas (precursors of colorectal cancer), and randomized clinical trials of dietary fiber supplementation have failed to show reductions in the recurrence of colorectal adenomas.

Yikyung Park, Sc.D., formerly of the Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, and colleagues evaluated the association between dietary fiber intake and risk of colorectal cancer by reanalyzing the primary data from 13 prospective cohort studies (Pooling Project of Prospective Studies of Diet and Cancer). The pooled analysis included 725,628 men and women who were followed-up for 6 to 20 years across studies.

During the follow-up, 8,081 colorectal cancer cases were identified. Among the studies, median (midpoint) energy-adjusted dietary fiber intake ranged from 14 to 28 g/d in men and from 13 to 24 g/d in women. The major source of dietary fiber varied across studies with cereals as a major contributor to dietary fiber intake in the European studies, and fruits and vegetables as the main sources in the North American studies.

In the age-adjusted model, dietary fiber intake was significantly associated with a 16 percent lower risk of colorectal cancer in the highest quintile compared with the lowest. This association was attenuated slightly but still remained statistically significant after
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Contact: Kevin Myron
617-432-3952
JAMA and Archives Journals
13-Dec-2005


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