at induce tumor formation have remained unclear. In a study appearing online on June 8 in advance of print publication in the July issue of the Journal of Clinical Investigation, Chu-Xia Deng and colleagues from the NIH, generated a line of mice that develop CC by specifically disrupting expression of the tumor suppressor genes SMAD4 and PTEN in the livers of these mice. Tumors formed in the bile ducts of these animals by 47 months of age. The authors show that SMAD4 and PTEN regulate each others' activity in order to balance their expression and repress CC formation. The authors also examined human CC specimens and found that PTEN was inactivated in the majority of cases, and SMAD4 expression was lost in about half of the tumors examined. The results of this study help us understand the relationship between SMAD4 and PTEN and extend our understanding of CC formation.
TITLE: Induction of intrahepatic cholangiocellular carcinoma by liver-specific disruption of Smad4 and Pten mice
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T cell activity during the immune response: what regulates the regulators?
Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are a specialized subpopulation of T cells that act to suppress activation of the immune system and in doing so help prevent aggressive immune responses against our own tissues. However little is known about how Tregs themselves are regulated. In a study appearing online on June 8 in advance of print publication in the July issue of the Journal of Clinical Investigation, Irun R. Cohen and colleagues from the Weizmann Institute of Science in Rehovot, Israel, repoPage: 1 2 3 4 5 Related medicine news :1
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