A major social-cognitive achievement of young children is the understanding that other people act on the basis of their own representations of reality rather than on the basis of reality itself. Developmental psychologists have explored the refinement of mental-state reasoning in children, typically by measuring their ability to pass false-belief tasks, such as the example above. Yet previous research has only been conducted in Western cultures, where children pass such tests around the age of 5. New research reveals that children reach this false-belief milestone at about the same age the world over.
The findings appear in the report, "Synchrony in the Onset of Mental-State Reasoning: Evidence from Five Cultures," published in the May 2005 issue of Psychological Science, a journal of the American Psychological Society. Researchers Tara Callaghan, St. Francis Xavier University; Mary Louise Claux, Catholic University of Peru; Shoji Itakura, Kyoto University; Angeline Lillard, University of Virginia; Hal Odden, Emory University; Philippe Rochat, Emory University; Saraswati Singh, M.K.P. College; and Sombat Tapanya, Chiang Mai University, tested the false-belief understanding of children in Canada, India, Peru, Samoa, and Thailand.
The test group consisted of 267 children, approximately 50 from each country, ranging from 30 to 72 months in age. The false-belief task involved the following test: One experimenter hid a trinket such
Contact: Tara Callaghan
Association for Psychological Science