The activation and proliferation of synovial cells, which is thought to play a key role in RA, may be exacerbated when apoptosis of synovial cells is either insufficient or resistant to treatment. In the first study to demonstrate whether statins can induce apoptosis in synovial cells of RA patients, researchers led by Takao Nagashima of Jichi Medical School, Tochigi, Japan measured the effect in vitro of two statins, fluvastatin (a fat-soluble statin) and pravastatin (a water-soluble statin) on human synovial cells from patients with RA and osteoarthropathy. "In the present study, we demonstrated that fluvastatin induced apoptosis in synoviocytes from patients with RA, but not in those from patients with osteoarthropathy, suggesting that the apoptotic effect of fluvastatin is a mechanism for suppression of inflammatory arthritis such as RA by statins," the authors state.
They were also able to determine the pathway by which apoptosis occurred: the inhibition of protein geranygeranylation (a process involving the metabolism of certain proteins that is essential for proper cell function, including the survival of vascular smooth muscle cells) was shown to be n
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