Tag: "enzyme" at biology news
Dangerous Chemical Combination Presents Possible Scenario For Gulf War Illnesses
...ical signs depends on howactive a particular blood enzyme
is in removing the foreign chemicals fromthe body,...rin alone.When multiple chemicals are present, the enzyme
is unable to neutralizethem all, resulting in a toxic accumulation of chemicals in the bloodstreaman...
Enzyme's "Magic" May Hold Key to Anticancer and Antimicrobial Drugs
... (PNAS) , the researchers explain how the yeast enzyme
unlinks two interlocked rings of double-st...sically proves the mechanism [by which the enzyme
works]," said Dr. Wang. "This in turn has implications in the design of anticancer d...
New Cancer Switch Discovered By Duke Medical Center Pharmacologists
...by the cABL gene is a "tyrosine kinase," a type of enzyme
found throughout the cell. The cABL enzyme
is normally a well-behaved part of the cell-growth machinery. However, the stitched-together BCR-ABL...
Key to Triplet Repeat Brain Diseases Open Door For New Way To Understand, Treat Genetic Diseases"
...segenes produce proteins that errantly stick to an enzyme
crucial to the productionof energy in brain cells. They believe that because this enzyme
cannot,therefore, do its job, brain tissue will malfunction and may, over years,die. This would resu...
New 'Twist' In Proteins Offers Possible Route To Improved Antibiotics
...y crystallography to figure out thestructure of an enzyme
critical to the growth of many bacteria have disco...that couldrecognize the unusual structure, jam the enzyme
and kill bacteria. Bacteriawould find it extremely difficult, if not impossible, to develop resistan...
Mutate Or Die: New Polymerase Gives Desperate Yeast An Option
... first of a new DNA polymerase family: a last-gasp enzyme
that yeast cells turn towhen all attempts to fix damaged DNA have failed. The enzyme
increases a cell's odds at staying alive, but it does so bydramatically boosting the type of mutatio...
DNA Techniques Allow Scientists To Become Pollution Detectives.
...someone else and then applying anenzyme to it, the enzyme
will cut each thread in differentplaces. "Then, we look at the number of cuts and where they are todetermine if it is a person or an animal," Tamplin explained."What we start to see are patterns that emerge and they aredifferent in humans than in wil...
Protein Glitch May Be Early Problem In Inherited Alzheimer's
...earchers can find where presenilin cleaves and the enzyme
that cleaves it, intervening at this point with drugs or other treatments might be ideal, according to Sangram Sisodia, Ph.D., an associate professor of pathology and neuroscience. Sisodia and Gopal Thinakaran, Ph.D., David Borchelt, Ph.D., and Mich...
Salvage Gene Is At The Root Of Many Mutations
...mutations in yeast are causedby the activity of an enzyme
that acts to salvage irreparably damaged DNA. The ...sed to DNA-damaging agents, yeast without the REV1 enzyme
develop less than one percent as many mutations as yeast with theenzyme." In the Nature paper...
Genetic Makeup May Explain Why Some Women Smokers Develop Breast Cancer While Others Don't, UB Study in JAMA Reports
...ting gene for N-acetyltransferase (NAT2), an enzyme
known to detoxify carcinogenic compounds in cigarette smoke, and who smoked more than a pack of cigarettes a day 20 years before diagnosis, had seven times the risk of developing breast cancer than women born with the fast-acting gene. The ris...
Medicinal Leech May Offer Clues To Neural Regeneration
...to allow regeneration to occur," she says. NOS, an enzyme
also found in humans, produces a "signaling" molec... of chemicals reactions. Studies show that the NOS enzyme
plays a role in a number of functions, such as learning and feeding, and is activated in response to...
Two Long-sought Diabetes Gene Found
...ng genes. They identified a specific gene (for the enzyme
glucokinase) as MODY2 in 1992. In 1995 they mapped MODY3 to a specific region on chromosome 12. Last spring, Bell and colleagues mapped NIDDM1, the gene responsible for a significant proportion of diabetes in Mexican-Americans, to one end of chromoso...
Researchers Find How Disease-resistant Plants Recognize Bacteria
...ronomy at Purdue, and his colleagues found that an enzyme
called Pto kinase, a protein that is produced by a disease-resistance gene in plants, works inside plant cells by binding to a protein produced by a disease-causing bacterium, which alerts the plant's various defense mechanisms. "By understanding the...
Pinpoint Gene Control Holds Promise For Nervous System Studies
...cted a viralvector that shuttled into the cells an enzyme
that snipped outthe "stop" sequence, activating the extra genes to produce NGF.The team believes this is the first permanent geneticmodification in the central nervous system of an adult mammal. The work gives scientists the ability to study gen...
Prostate Cancer May Be Predicted 10 Years Before Diagnosis
... in the December, 1996, journal, Urology. PSA, an enzyme
produced by the prostate gland, is found in high concentration in semen where it acts to liquefy the seminal fluid after ejaculation so that sperm can swim freely. Some PSA leaks into the blood stream from prostatic cells, more so when the prostate ...
Scientists Determine 3-D Crystal Structure Of Cancer-Causing Protein
...irst step of signal transmission inside a cell--an enzyme
called a kinaseattaches a highly charged phosphate group to a tyrosine, one of the 20 aminoacids that make proteins, acting as a molecular switch that turns proteins offand on. In this study, Kuriyan and co-workers Frank Sicheri, Ph.D., and I...
Plants Need Vitamin C, Too
...ee-radical scavenger and participates in important enzyme
reactions. "That's why ascorbic acid is thought to play a variety of critical roles in plants and animals," he said. Last indicated that an important goal of this research is to continually improve crop foods, some of which do not contain much ascorb...
Prostate Cancer's Aggressiveness May Be Predicted Early By The Ratio Of Free To Total PSA
...cancers need to be treated," says Metter. PSA, an enzyme
produced by the prostate gland, is found in high concentration in semen where it acts to liquefy the seminal fluid after ejaculation so that sperm can swim freely. Some PSA leaks into the blood stream from prostatic cells, more so in the presence of ...
Scientists Trace Roots Of Protein That Keeps Antarctic Fish From Freezing
...twoparts of its ancestor, trypsinogen [a digestive enzyme
produced by the pancreas],but those two parts did not form the new protein," she said. "Thenew protein came from building from the ground up a very short sequencein the middle, and going through repeated duplications to form the buildingblocks of the...
Everyday Technology Underlies First DNA Computer Logic Gates
...tened end-to-end by a third Lego stuck on top. An enzyme
called DNA ligase seals the gap between the ends of the two input strands, yielding a single new strand. Using regular gel electrophoresis, the length of this new strand can be precisely measured, providing the DNA computer's "answer" o...
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