Tag: "membrane" at biology news

Bacterial Toxin Surprises Scientists

...brosis that result from defects in natural membrane channels. "If we could understand how th...roteins that end up inserted in the cell's membrane [such as hormone receptors] as well as to any kind of excreted protein [like digestive enzym...

Gene-Altered Mouse May Provide New Insights To Parkinson's Disease, Substance Abuse And Schizophrenia

...ines can stillget into the neuron through the cell membrane and disrupt dopamine vesicles.However, without transporters, dopamine cannot get out of the cell intothe synapse. "Our results show the transporter is absolutely essential for amphetaminedependent transport of free dopamine into the synaptic space, ...

Surprising Protein Movement Seen In Cells

...e eventuallypackaged in vesicles -- small sacks of membrane -- pinched offand then transported out to the rest of the cell, where they areneeded for a variety of purposes. But these specific proteins are not transported; they aremysteriously retained in the organelle. Without the retention,the organelles woul...

New Sensor Provides First Instant Test For Toxic E. coli Organism

...When E. coli 0157:H7toxins bind to their synthetic membrane surface, the backbone chain of PDAreorganizes. The sensor that was blue turns red. With the ability to instantly detect 0157:H7, health authorities would have apowerful new weapon to combat what has been a continuing series of outbreaks.Thes...

Researchers Corral Millions Of Microscopic Membranes

...ns of cell-sized squares composed of an artificial membrane that closely mimics the surface of living cells. A... the scientists dropped tiny bags, or vesicles, of membrane material extracted from chicken eggs into the corrals, which were submerged in saline water. They de...

Corn Byproduct Shows Promise As Biodegradable Packaging Material

...byproduct, becomes more available throughefficient membrane processing. Zein is extracted from corn gluten meal left over after ethanol manufactureand also from dry milling waste. Only a small portion of the zein currentlyavailable is used commercially in the formulation of specialty coatingsfor candies, ric...

Duke researchers find existing drugs can stop fungus that attacks AIDS patients

... serious andsometimes deadly infection of the thin membrane that covers and protectsthe brain. The fungus enters the body through the lungs when a person breathesin its airborne spores. In a healthy person, it is mostly harmless, becausethe immune system effectively combats the organism. However, in people wi...

Scientists Bridge Gap In Cell Communication

...rotein shuttles from the inner surface of the cell membrane right to the DNA, in one fell swoop." The discovery, Laughon emphasized, will have no immediate medical application, but may lead to the development of new genetic-based treatments for disease. It also reveals that the pathway from cell sur...

Stopping "Cellular Suicide" Could Boost Production In Biotech Labs

...that I'm developing." One potential stop signal is membrane protein called bcl-2. Whenthismaterial is inserted during the genetic engineering of a new cellline, itappears to shut down the suicidal impulses, Betenbaugh says. Heis alsoexperimenting with chemicals that mimic the effects of bcl-2 whenadded tocell...

Scientists Find New Trigger For Nerve Cell Death

... in calcium. Potassium ions cross the cell membrane through tunnels called potassiumchannels, which control the rate at which they flow. If these channels play akey role in apoptosis, it might be possible to use drugs called potassiumchannel blockers to stem potassium loss and prevent nerve cells from...

Scientists Use IGF-I To Grow New Membranes Around Neurons

...actor called IGF-I to stimulate growth of a myelin membrane sheath, similar to a sausage casing, around neurons in a culture dish. "This is the first evidence to indicate that IGF-I can promote growth of new peripheral nervous system myelin sheaths," according to Eva L. Feldman , associate professor of ...

Researcher Discovers Plant Genes For Phosphate Uptake

...teins. "The phosphate transporter sits on the cell membrane and transfers phosphate through the membrane along with hydrogen ions," Raghothama says. "We've known about this for a long time in yeast and fun...

Washington University Licenses Its New Antibacterial Technology

...at chaperones pilus subunits to theouter bacterial membrane and another that extrudes them to the cell surface. Theresearchers also have identified compounds that may inhibit one of theseproteins. With the SIGA funding, they now will develop and test additionalcompounds. Such drugs should prevent Gram-negativ...

Candidate Regulator Of The Temporal Component Of Neurotransmitter Release Identified

...itous protein required for a variety of general membrane fusion and secretion events in eukaryotic cells... are located directly at the presynaptic plasma membrane and being prepared ("primed") for fusion. While neuronal communication relies on both t...

Harvard Medical School Researchers Identify Four Human Genes Essential To Cell Division; Discovery Yields New Target For Cancer Therapies

... migrates tothe distant cellular poles. A new cell membrane forms between the chromosomalclumps, and mitosis concludes with the formation of two identical daughtercells, each containing an intact copy of the parent cell's genetic information. An essential step in the development of any new drug is an...

PEBBLEs Help U-M Scientists Open A Window On Cell Chemistry

...culture dish. "The PEBBLEs blast through the cell membrane like bullets," Clark explains, "but because they are so small, they rarely do any damage. Mortality of cells shot with PEBBLEs is only 2 percent higher than in control cells." Martin A. Philbert , U-M assistant professor of toxicology in the...

Lights, Camera ... Reaction: Charting The Biological Effects Of Light InBillionths Of A Second

...ng complexes are very complicated,water-insoluble, membrane protein assemblies, notes Moffat, involving manydifferent proteins, different chromophores, different and often quite complexways of responding to light. "This system provides a simpler way to study how light energy is transformedinto signal energy....

ASU Scientists Make Major Breakthrough With Photosynthetic Energy

...ised a chemical system that pumps protons across a membrane from the outside of a cell to the inside. The pumping action creates an imbalance in proton concentration across the membrane, causing the protons to flow through a protein and generate biological energy. Gust said, "The focus is on how to capture ...

Purdue Finding May Snuff Out The Sniffles

... to one or more receptor sites on a cell, the cell membrane engulfs the virus, wrapping around it and allowing it to come in contact with more receptor sites. The Purdue group now is pursuing studies to determine how this interaction allows the shell of the rhinovirus to unfold and release its genetic materia...

Structure Of The Plasma Membrane Proton Pump Offers A First Glimpse Of The Mechanism Of Ion Pumping Across Membranes

...etermined the structure of the plasma membrane proton ATPase at a resolution of about 0.8 nm by e...1998, 840). The proton ATPase is a membrane protein which uses energy derived from ATP hydrolisis to pump protons out of the cell, ...

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