Tag: "act" at biology news

Ultra-thin coating traps DNA on a leash

...NA that attaches to this flexible leash is able to act as if it were free floating." The organic molecules that make up the coating have one end that attaches to the glass and the other end with three functional amine groups where DNA strands can interact and attach. Retention of DNA is more than 50 pe...

Estrogen promotes gender differences in brain's response to stress

...e results suggest that high levels of estrogen can act to enhance the stress response, causing greater stress-related cognitive impairments. It is important to note, however, that estrogen had no effect on cognitive performance under non-stressful conditions. The idea that estrogen could contribute to ...

Nutrient-poor oceans generate their food 'hot spots'

... effects (1) consider rather that the Rossby waves act like a rake over the ocean surface, in this way concentrating all floating particles or debris in these places where warmer water accumulates owing to greater sun exposure. This excludes the possibility of nutrients ascending from the deep cold water...

New findings implicate cell size controls in a variety of diseases

...bility. Now, it's clear that these other molecules act upstream of mTOR, and that a defect in each of them means a different disease. Taken together, the chain of events is now known to work like this: More LKB1 means more AMPK. That means more TSC2, and that, in turn, means less mTOR, which has the re...

Scientists report on promising new approaches to induce cancer cell suicide

...mor's own weapon against itself by forcing VEGF to act as a cell death factor instead of a growth factor....l these results are indicative of how the drug may act in humans." Mice that received ZD6474 showed a 10- to 25-day delay in growth in all of the tumors co...

Brain's 'master molecule' produces same behavior in mice from three different psychostimulant drugs

...n that drugs like LSD, PCP and amphetamines, which act on different transmitters, create the same psychoses as seen in schizophrenia. "It turns out everyone was right, because each of these drugs work on a common pathway regulated by DARPP-32," says Greengard. Previous research by Svenningsson and Greeng...

UT Southwestern researchers learn importance of insulin family signaling in male sex determination

...iggers differentiation of the Sertoli cells, which act as organizing centers and direct formation of the testes. Without Sry, XX or XY gonads failed to develop testes (male reproductive organs producing sperm and male sex hormones), and male to female sex reversal ensued in the mice studied. If insulin ...

Technique may identify novel disease genes at a faster clip

...ed up another important observation: Nova does not act randomly. "Looking at these targets as a group, they have a tremendous biological coherence to them," said Darnell. "Almost seventy percent of them are RNAs that have something to do with the neuronal synapse." Synapses are the junctions between neur...

Stepping way out: Scripps scientists watch clam feet elongate far from the shell

...e in a symbiotic relationship with marine bacteria act as hosts that retrieve chemicals, typically sulfide or methane. The Nature paper explains that the symbiotic clams in the Thyasiridae family elongate their feet to burrow extensive mines in an effort to reach the sulfide. X-rays taken through Dufour'...

Cognitive performance influenced by gene for prion protein (also affected by mad cow disease)

...chanisms by which the prion protein might actually act on cognitive performance are unclear, but several lines of evidence suggest that this protein is involved in neuroprotection. To the authors' knowledge, this is one of the first reports on the influence of a common genetic variation on individual dif...

Lycopene's anti-cancer effect linked to other tomato components

...d to a lowered risk of prostate cancer -- does not act alone. Scientists at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and Ohio State University say that lycopene's punch is stronger in combination with other phytochemicals in the fruit. Lycopene is an antioxidant and the pigment that provides the re...

Eastern Europe urged to prepare now for growing threat of HIV resistance

...f HIV drugs. Unlike existing anti-HIV drugs, which act inside the cell once it has been infected, FUZEON works on the outside actively blocking the fusion of the virus with cells of the human immune system (CD4 cells). Because of this very different mechanism of action, FUZEON is active against HIV stra...

Lifestyle changes clinically effective

... risk of cancer with healthier lifestyles that can act as a spur to those who need to know how it works before they are willing to change," he added. The Effects of Weight Loss and Weight Gain on Biomarkers of Breast Cancer Risk (Abstract 1451) Pre-menopausal weight gain is associated with an increased...

Young cancer researchers honored

...howing that cyclin-dependent kinases enzymes that act as switches to control the progression of the cell cycle can both trigger and prevent initiation, depending on what is going on inside the cell. Dr. Diffley also has characterized the effects of DNA-damaging agents (such as radiation and certain dr...

UBC researcher discovers 'control room' that regulates immune responses

...h Centre. "We've found a mechanism that appears to act like a dial it can turn immune system response u...s. A network of specialized cells, dendritic cells act as sentinels of the immune system, detecting and relaying information about illness-causing organism...

Duke researchers discover power behind molecular motors

... explained. "The stalk appears to be rigid and may act like a lever. This is in contrast to models for other kinesin motors, whose movement appears to be more rachet-like than lever-like." From the time Endow first discovered Ncd in fruit flies, the little motor has been an enigma. At the time, it was th...

New medicines at risk from biodiversity loss

... To lose these species would be a self-destructive act of unparalleled folly." Approximately 500 species ...d allow countries to identify emerging markets and act early enough to prevent depletion." This could be achieved, say the authors, by extending CITES (The...

Genetic basis for gender differences in the liver

...olution, and diversified rapidly, but the way they act is highly conserved. Since Rsl regulates genes at puberty that are involved in reproduction and hormone metabolism, it may be that not only Rsl, but also other members of the KRAB-ZFP family, influence functions that lead to speciation."...

JCI table of contents, 15 October, 2003

...t-line host defense molecules, including PMNs, and act to recognize pathogens and initiate the immune response. Asrar Malik and colleagues from the University of Illinois School of Medicine demonstrate that during infection, the activation of PMNs via TLR4 instructs endothelial cells to upregulate TLR2 a...

Scientists determine identity, cell locale and quantity of nearly all proteins in an organism

... informative is proteins where they act, how they act and in what kind of abundance." "There has been a real lack of good tools to follow what proteins were doing in a cell in any comprehensive way. Because of this, fundamental questions remained unanswerable about the proteome and its relationship to t...

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