Tag: "action" at biology news

Calcium channels control coronary artery relaxation

... had been shown to control muscle contraction, the action of the other type, called the T-type, remained largely unknown, said Campbell. The L-channel opens in response to large voltage differences across the cell membrane, while the T-channel responds to a weaker "depolarization," he said. Campbell and his...

Small-molecule inhibitors of botulinum neurotoxin identified

...a number of compounds that inhibited the enzymatic action of BoNT serotype A light chain (BoNT/A LC). All inhibitors were further verified by high-performance liquid chromatography. Finally, molecular modeling techniques were used to predict structural features that contribute to inhibitor binding and po...

Estrogen receptor-a disruption and vasodilation in coronary arteries

...dent vasodilation of coronary arteries through its action on estrogen receptor- (ER-) to increase protein levels of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD-1). The authors of the study, entitled "Regulation of Nitric Oxide-Dependent Vasodilatation in Coronary Arteries of...

Diet may improve cognition, slow aging, and help protect against cosmic radiation

...to environmental chemicals that mimic or block the action of the sex hormones estrogen and testosterone may disrupt normal differences in the brain between males and females -- differences that affect thinking and learning as well as sexual behavior. These findings add more scientific support to the growing...

Activity detailed for sirtuins, involved in metabolism, aging, gene expression

...and how they function. Insights into their mode of action could represent early steps toward developing a no...sirtuins work. The results point to a mechanism of action likely to be general for the entire sirtuin enzyme family and may offer the beginnings of an explana...

Researchers create 'supersized' molecule of DNA

...sickle cell anemia. ''The bases are where the real action occurs,'' Kool noted. ''What we've done in our experiment is to actually change them.'' xDNA In their study, Kool and his co-workers followed up on earlier experiments by chemist Nelson Leonard, now at the California Institute of Technology. In the...

FDA approves Raptiva (efalizumab) for chronic moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis

...cal studies, RAPTIVA demonstrated a rapid onset of action in the reduction of symptoms associated with psoriasis, in some patients within four weeks of initiating treatment. RAPTIVA is administered once weekly via subcutaneous injection and can be self-administered by patients at home. "Since there is no c...

JAK2 enzyme helps protect brain cells, wreaks havoc on blood vessels

...ain cells from Alzheimer's disease by blocking the action of amyloid-b peptide, the plaque-producing protein.... Marrero. "And how does angiotensin II block that action via JAK2? It may even be that JAK2 plays a role when angiotensin II acts as a growth factor." Dr. Ma...

Research collaboration identifies gene essential to puberty

...ote that GPR54 is probably not the only gene whose action is required for normal puberty but rather one of an ensemble of genes in charge of the complex process. Most of the unrelated IHH patients whose samples were screened in this study did not have mutations in that gene. But the fact that GPR54 plays ...

Building a better atlas of yeast proteins

...formation will be critical to efforts to model the action of proteins as the cell grows and adapts to changing conditions. Such models will give biologists the scientific equivalent of a movie of the cell's machinery, rather than the snapshots available today, they said. "Although it is interesting to know ...

Relatives of Parkinson's patients have higher risk for action tremor

...l Institute in New York, studied the prevalence of action tremor among 5,563 relatives of patients with Park...that it was the first to ascertain the presence of action tremor in a large number of relatives and adjust the results for age and other factors." Relatives o...

New gene necessary for plant growth and development discovered

...lly safe herbicides from chemicals that impede the action of auxin by over-activating the SIR1 gene. A paper featured on the cover of the October 10, 2003 issue of Plant Physiology details the chemical genetic approach. The discovery of the SIR1 gene was reported in the August 22nd issue of Science. "By usi...

What can the genomics revolution teach us about global change?

...ring such topics as: How can information on the action of individual genes help us understand plant growth? Can genomics provide insights on the relationship between carbon dioxide and photosynthesis? What can genomics tell us about a plant's ability to grow under adverse conditions (higher temp...

First study to watch brain patterns when forgiving

...s judgments about how forgivable the person and/or action may be. Farrow's study is the first ever to examine how the brain functions when making judgments about forgivability and empathy. Through MRI scanning of a healthy control group, the study found that judgments about forgivability and empathy produ...

When heme attacks: After trauma, the molecule that makes life possible rampages

...utting down an important cell membrane channel, an action that kills neurons and constricts blood vessels. ...al for the cellular process of respiration and the action of nirtroglycerine. "Generally, the heme molecule is attached to larger molecules, such as hemoglo...

Could a specific protein contribute to erectile dysfunction for the diabetic and obese?

...penile vascular tone increasing sensitivity to the action of vasoconstrictor agents. Their findings suggest ... a depressed erectile response caused by increased action of the vasoconstrictor pathway involving PKC in a key sensitization process. A New Study The auth...

Scientists switch components in cell circuits: Possible new technology, therapy

...ir environment in order to "decide" on a course of action such as growth or movement. The signals are transmitted and processed by groups of proteins linked in specific circuits. Focusing on a protein that directs cell movement, the researchers were able to substitute key parts of the protein so that the ...

Abnormally high number of Lou Gehrig's disease cases identified among Gulf War veterans

...cused on this issue." Dr. Haley said, "Taking such action before a published study on the subject was a courageous move that allowed ill veterans to get help at the earliest possible date. The publication of these two studies vindicates his decision." Dr. Haley said it is likely that the ALS cases he studie...

Moving the target for osteoporosis treatment

...ns secretion of a hormone into the bloodstream for action at a distant site. "When you have paracrine function, it gives you much finer control, so you have these bone cells in close proximity acting on each other," Dr. Isales says. Researchers in Japan recently described another local control system in t...

Discovery may be first plant cell surface molecule that halts cell proliferation

...he complexities of how signals are transduced into action within cells also holds implications for agriculture. "The new RGS protein's function in the G protein signaling pathway may give us a handle on how fast plant organs can produce cells," said Jones. "Indeed, this particular pathway is a growth pathwa...

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