Tag: "activation" at biology news

Secret behind hard exoskeletons, spreading wings revealed

...lor darkens. Both processes take place through the activation of a series of five hormones. The structure, genetic sequence and biochemical properties of four of these hormones were known since 1990; that of the fifth, bursicon, was not. Using biochemical methods, the researchers set out to determine bursicon'...

Molecular traffic cop directs cellular signals

...ere experimentally reduced, stimulus-dependant ERK activation in the nucleus increased dramatically. These results demonstrate that the newly discovered inhibitor hSef is a signaling-dependent regulator of the Ras/ERK MAP kinase cascade that blocks MAP kinase influence on target genes by restricting where ERK a...

Lack of immune system protein prevents lupus-like condition in mice

... know a lot of molecules that are important to the activation of T and B cells, but we have never understood what was important for their interaction," Peng says. "SAP may give us an important first insight into how these interactions occur." Peng and his colleagues plan to study how SAP removal or suppression ...

Chemoradioimmunotherapy for advanced breast cancer: hope for the future?

...trols. Apoptosis was confirmed by the detection of activation of caspase-3-9 (an enzyme involved in apoptosis), inhibition of DNA synthesis and metabolic activity in the tumour cells and the formation of apoptotic bodies. These apoptotic bodies were seen to be phagocytosed (absorbed) by adjacent tumour cells, w...

JCI table of contents, 1 July 2004

...ver, identified new means by which maternal immune activation can lead to pregnancy failure. Here, the authors p... insufficiency and early pregnancy loss induced by activation of the innate immune system AUTHOR CONTACT: Adrian Erlebacher Harvard School of Public Health, Bost...

Cancer gene MYC emerging as key research target

...roarray technology enables scientists to study the activation patterns of thousands of genes at once instead of ...es a gene? "There are many other processes besides activation that MYC might be regulating," McMahon says. "It's also possible that there might be tissue-specific...

How DNA repair machinery is a 'Two-Way Street'

...senses certain types of DNA damage, which leads to activation of the cell's suicide machinery, called apoptosis, resulting in cell death. Inactivation of the mismatch repair system not only predisposes cells to tumor development, but also renders them resistant to certain anti-tumor drugs. "Such findings as the...

Cancer patient, heal thyself

...ch Center, provide a method to enable the specific activation and tumor infiltration of these cells from cancer patients themselves. The authors show that patients' bone marrow is enriched for subsets of anti-tumorspecific T cells. These cells were isolated from bone marrow and stimulated in cell culture to be...

Microscopy scans show how brain cells process energy

...lly sustained -- after about 10 seconds -- by late activation of the astrocyte-neuron lactate shuttle. Neurons, even at rest, are always burning glucose and they continue to do so when a signal begins to pass through the neurons. Then the astrocytes 'kick in' to provide lactate fuel that they have converted fro...

The key to cell motility

...on. "Understanding the basic mechanism of how Rac activation is regulated," says Bokoch, "is a key to understan...have described the molecular mechanism whereby Rac activation is regulated by a molecule called Pak. The Rac-Pak Connection and Its Relevance to Disease Rac i...

A pregnant pause for unexpected interactions

...ver, identified new means by which maternal immune activation can lead to pregnancy failure. Here, the authors provide a mouse model of early pregnancy loss and present data that unexpectedly links the reproductive hormone secretion system to the immune system. The mouse model shows that when a specif...

Scientists discover genetic marker responsible for two-fold increase in risk of rheumatoid arthritis

...2) that is known to be involved in controlling the activation of immune cells called T cells. Under normal conditions, the enzyme works as a "negative regulator" --- meaning it inactivates a specific signaling molecule, which in turn interrupts the communication lines and keeps immune cells from becoming overac...

Protein believed to control formation of memory identified by Scripps & UCSD scientists

...on of a new protein. Mutations in CREB prevent the activation of certain genes, and animals with defective forms of CREB have problems forming long-term memories. But, scientists asked, was CREB the only protein that controls memory formation? A few years ago, Korzus and Mayford were working at the UCSD Schoo...

The mother lode of mutations

...are critical to embryonic development prior to the activation of the new embryo's own genome. In vertebrates, maternal gene products direct such essential processes as fertilization; the first cellular divisions of the embryo; and the head-to-tail arrangement of developing cells. The genes also control morphoge...

Obesity and hypertension: Two epidemics or one?

...logical blockade of the sympathetic nervous system activation and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system are logic...is growing support that sympathetic nervous system activation and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system activation have an important role in the cause of obesity h...

Researchers identify two potential protein targets for new drug therapies for pancreatic cancer

...d increased levels of two enzymes, FAP (fibroblast activation protein) and FAK (focal adhesion kinase) in tumor ...ncreatic adenocarcinoma specimens. Fibroblast activation protein appears on connective tissue, or stromal fibroblasts, supporting the foundation (stroma) of ...

Tamoxifen stimulates breast cancer growth following alteration of estrogen receptor

...ogy at The Netherlands Cancer Institute found that activation of the enzyme protein kinase A (PKA) induced tamoxifen resistance in breast cancer cells through a unique mechanism. PKA modified the estrogen receptor in such a way that although tamoxifen could still bind, it could no longer convert the receptor to...

UNC scientists block cellular enzyme activity involved in cancer progression

...dded. "Disruption of this interaction might reduce activation of FAK and impair aberrant cell motility or survival conferred by FAK under pathological conditions, such as cancer."...

JCI table of contents, 1 June 2004

...s that lead to organ dysfunction and damage. Rapid activation of PKCbetaII occurs upon injury and affects severa...evere lung injury. Downstream effects of PKCbetaII activation that occur after I/R, such as ERK1/2 phosphorylation and Egr-1 expression, were reversed in PKCbeta-...

Cell growth and death controlled by single pathway in lymphoma cancer model

...phoma is a tumor of the immune system and abnormal activation of the NF-kB pathway, which is normally involved i...her this resistance to cell death was dependent on activation of the NF-kB pathway, so they treated the cells with molecules they knew would block NF-kB. They th...

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