Tag: "als" at biology news

Phase II trials of second-generation antisense cancer drug planned following successful early study

Geneva, Switzerland: Phase II trials of the first second-generation antisense cancer drug to be used in patients are soon to be underway in the wake of a successful Phase I study, which has demonstrated that the new drug blocks its target gene in exactly the way it is designed to do....... In the Phase I study the drug OGX-011* inhibited the production of clusterin, a protein that protects cell...

Hidden diversity: DNA 'barcoding' reveals a common butterfly is actually 10 different species

PHILADELPHIA A common butterfly, found in a variety of habitats from the southern United States to northern Argentina, is actually comprised of at least 10 separate species, according to researchers from the University of Pennsylvania. ... Astraptes fulgerator, a medium-large skipper butterfly, is a routine visitor to urban gardens and tropical rainforests. While the "species" has been known to...

Brown research reveals key insight into memory-making

PROVIDENCE, R.I. -- How information is stored in the nervous system, a key to memory and learning, is one of the hottest topics in neuroscience today. New research conducted at Brown University and Duke University Medical Center, published in the current issue of , fills in important details about cellular changes that occur when experience becomes memory....... This process is called long-term...

Study reveals why eyes in some paintings seem to follow viewers

COLUMBUS, Ohio You've seen it in horror movies, or even in real-life at the local museum: a painting in which the eyes of the person portrayed seem to follow you around the room, no matter where you go....... People have described the effect as creepy or eerie, and some have thought it supernatural. But now researchers have demonstrated the very natural cause for this visual effect....... All it...

New sign language suggests children create language's fundamentals through learning

This release is also available in ....... that, in fact, children give language its most fun...

Tips from the Journals of the American Society for Microbiology

... ...Cranberry and oregano extracts combined with lactic acid may inhibit the growth of bacteria in meat and fish say researchers from Massachusetts. Their findings appear in the September 2004 issue of the journal Applied and Environmental Microbiology. ... ...Listeria monocytogenes, the cause of many food-borne illnesses throughout North Ameri...

Chemical signals health of brain cells Symposium

The "First International Symposium on N-acetylaspartate," (NAA), will be held September 13-14, 2004 at the National Institutes of Health Natcher Conference Center, Bethesda, MD. NAA is best known as a marker for the health of neurons, brain cells, which can be measured non-invasively, using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). ...... The meeting brings together basic researchers and clinicians...

New dye directly reveals activated proteins in living cells

CHAPEL HILL -- A series of experiments reported on this week in the journal Science shows for the first time that novel biosensor dyes can directly reveal activation of proteins in individual living cells....... The research, led by Dr. Klaus M. Hahn, professor of pharmacology at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill's School of Medicine, demonstrated that at least one of the dyes Hahn...

Second call for proposals for the European Young Investigator Award

The second call for proposals for the European Young Investigator (EURYI) Award, which enables and encourages outstanding young researchers from all over the world, has been announced. This European programme for young researchers is managed and funded by the scientific and research funding organisations under the umbrella of the European Union Research Organisations Heads of Research Councils (E...

Select research highlights from current AACR journals

From the September 1 issue of Cancer Research:... ... Aberrations in the receptor protein dystroglycan may lead to either muscular dystrophy or the development of carcinomas. Whereas several molecular defects in muscle disease have been characterized, little is known about such changes in carcinoma cells. Singh et al. identified multiple post-translational modifications that modulate dystrog...

Study reveals first genetic step necessary for prostate cancer growth

SEATTLE A new study from Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center reveals what may be the earliest step in the development of prostate cancer. The finding could open the door to new tests that predict whether the cancer will become aggressive and the development of treatments to prevent the condition from progressing. ... The study, published in the Sept. 1 issue of Cancer Research, found that wh...

Study of flu patients reveals virus outsmarting key drug

MADISON - A drug envisioned as a front-line defense for the next flu pandemic might have a genetic Achilles' heel that results in a drug-resistant influenza virus capable of infecting new human hosts, according to a study published this week (Aug. 28) in the British medical journal The Lancet.... ...The study of Japanese children with influenza and treated with the antiviral drug oseltamivir was...

Environmental costs of home construction lower with wise choice, reuse of building materials

Most of the energy that goes into building U.S. homes is consumed not by the power tools, welding and trucking during construction but during the manufacture of the building materials, according to a comprehensive life-cycle assessment comparing typical wood-, steel- and concrete-frame homes....... ... Using the least energy-intensive building materials and taking steps toward such things as r...

Study in Science reveals recreational fishing takes big bite of ocean catch

U.S. saltwater recreational fishing catch rivals commercial fisheries for many depleted fish stocks including red snapper, black seabass, and lingcod...... Taking a hard look at the common belief that recreational fishing accounts for only 2-3% of total landings in the U.S., a new study published in the journal Science (August 26th) reveals that recreational catches account for nearly a quarter o...

Computer database being developed at Temple will allow for better inventory of chemicals

Keeping up-to-date inventories of chemicals being used in laboratories throughout a major research institution like Temple University can be a daunting task, often requiring untold lab visits and countless man-hours to complete. ... But now, thanks to virologist Jay Rappaport, Ph.D., an AIDS researcher in Temples Center for Neurovirology and Cancer Biology, the task may soon get much easier. ....

Innovative 'ceramic-on-metal' hip replacements to undergo clinical trials

A new type of artificial hip, more robust and longer lasting than conventional artificial joints, is to undergo clinical trials and could be available for patients within five years. ...... These 'ceramic-on-metal' joints cause less damage to the surrounding bone than conventional artificial hips, therefore many recipients will avoid the need for further surgery. They could also lower the age at...

Plumbing trees' plumbing reveals their engineering skill

DURHAM, N.C. -- Taking advantage of a unique labyrinth of Texas caves festooned with tree roots, Duke University biologists have given trees the most exacting root-to-twig physical of their circulatory system yet. ......The scientists' findings reveal the impressive adaptive engineering of deep-rooted trees in adjusting the size and structure of their piping, or xylem, to maximize water uptake, m...

Sweet success in targeting sugar molecules to cells in living animals

Howard Hughes Medical Institute researchers have successfully targeted unnatural sugar molecules with chemically unique functional groups onto the surfaces of cells in living animals without altering the animals' physiology.... ...The achievement is a significant advance in the promising new field of metabolic engineering because it provides a new tool with which researchers can label specific ce...

The first engineering of cell surfaces in living animals

BERKELEY, CA -- Four years ago Carolyn Bertozzi, a member of the Materials Sciences Division at the Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and a professor of chemistry at the University of California at Berkeley, introduced a new way of engineering the surfaces of cells, by arming cell-surface sugars to take part in a modified chemical reaction known as the Staudinger ligati...

Tips from the journals of the American Society for Microbiology

......Researchers from Maryland have developed a new DNA vaccine that targets proteins expressed in cervical cancer cells. Their findings appear in the August 2004 issue of the Journal of Virology. ......Human papillomavirus (HPV) is found in more than 99 % of cervical cancer cases, which is the second leading cause of cancer death among women throughout the world. Consistently identified in H...

Stem cell research targets cerebral palsy

Natural chemicals that assist healing may one day help transplanted adult stem cells integrate into an injured brain, helping children with cerebral palsy recover lost function, according to researchers at the Medical College of Georgia.... ..."We know that we can get stem cells into the brain and they will turn into brain cells but we really don't know how well they work," says Dr. James E. Carr...

New comprehensive textbook on companion animals fills need

CHAMPAIGN, Ill. — Cats, 77 million. Dogs, 65 million. Such are the estimated totals, as of 2002, of these popular companion animals living with people in the United States. Two-thirds of U.S. farms have dogs, but 90 percent of the canines are owned by city dwellers. Then there are the various birds, guinea pigs, hamsters, hedgehogs, lizards, mice, rabbits and turtles, to name only a few,...

Tobacco promising factory for biopharmaceuticals

Blacksburg, Va. -- The economics of producing biopharmaceuticals from transgenic plants such as tobacco is still a roadblock to producing large quantities of urgently needed medicines, especially for people in underdeveloped nations....... Chenming (Mike) Zhang is testing a variety of ways to economically recover recombinant proteins from transgenic tobacco using different protein separation tech...

Why some animals have smaller eyes: Lifestyle matters

ITHACA, N.Y. — If brain size is proportional to body size in virtually all vertebrate animals, Cornell University biologists reasoned, shouldn't eye size and body size scale the same way? While they failed to find a one-size-fits-all rule for eyes, what they learned about the 300 vertebrates they studied helps to explain how animals evolved precisely the orbs they need for everyday life.......

Oldest evidence for processing of wild cereals: starch grains from barley, wheat, on grinding stone

When the water level in the Sea of Galilee dropped in 1989, archaeologists rushed to excavate Ohalo II, an ancient human settlement. On the floor of one hut they found a large, flat, basaltic stone. The stone's uneven surface yielded starch grains of grass seeds, mostly from wild barley and possibly also from wheat. This evidence presented in the journal (August 5, 2004), pushes back the dat...

New survey reveals insights into unique relationship between mothers and pediatricians

New York August 4, 2004 Results of a new survey released today by iVillage reveal insights into how moms select and interact with their baby's pediatrician. According to the survey, mothers today view their pediatrician as a "parenting partner" rather than solely a healthcare provider. This view has evolved over time with many of today's moms looking to their pediatricians to act as "partners...

Goals unlikely to protect Gulf of Mexico shrimp industry

ANN ARBOR, Mich.—Research from the University of Michigan shows that the current federal plan to reduce the "dead zone" in the Gulf of Mexico may not be enough to protect the region's half billion dollar a year shrimp industry.... ...Researchers from U-M, Louisiana State University, and Limnotech Inc, an Ann Arbor-based firm, used three different models to analyze oxygen depletion and to an...

Social benefits of wound healing may not make any difference in animals with multiple partners

COLUMBUS, Ohio A new study suggests that wounds on mice that prefer multiple mates heal at the same rate, whether the mice are housed with a mate or live in isolation.... ...But the same doesn't ring true for monogamous mice, said Courtney DeVries, an assistant professor of psychology and neuroscience at Ohio State University.... ...She and Erica Glasper, a doctoral student in psychology...

Firefly compound lights up 'protein dance' in living animals

St. Louis, July 29, 2004 -- Radiologists at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis have developed a first-of-its-kind noninvasive imaging technique that allows them to watch two proteins interacting in live animals. ...... The technique genetically fuses proteins of interest with carefully cleaved sections of luciferase, the protein fireflies use to create light. When the target pr...

Study reveals surprising 'remodeling' property of gene regulation process

CHAPEL HILL -- Much like moving furniture around to create more space, cells dramatically rearrange their entire genome in order to allow the right genes to be turned on at the right time, new research at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill shows. ...This extensive chromosomal "remodeling" is accomplished by moving DNA packaging structures called nucleosomes to different spots in the...

Epilepsy: Signals 'brake' in brain impaired

To date epilepsy research has mainly concentrated on the transmission of the nerve cell signals to what are known as the synapses. However, recent observations by medical researchers from the US, France and the University of Bonn support the idea that in 'falling sickness' the signal processing in the nerve cells (neurons) is altered: normally specific ion channels absorb the neuronal activity. I...

UCI study reveals gene linked to breast cancer can suppress tumors

Irvine, Calif., July 28, 2004 -- A UC Irvine researcher has found a novel tumor- suppressor function for a gene that, when mutated, often triggers breast cancer in women. ...... The work also provides further evidence about how estrogen helps activate a disease that afflicts thousands of American women each year....... Dr. Ellis Levin, a professor of medicine, biochemistry and pharmacology at UCI...

Protein key to trafficking in nerve terminals

A protein characterized by researchers at Baylor College of Medicine plays an important role in communication between neurons. This protein is overactive (up-regulated) in children with Down's Syndrome.... ...Identifying this protein - Dap160 — and its function is an important step in understanding how neurons communicate with one another, said Dr. Hugo Bellen, BCM professor of molecular and...

Research reveals role of gene in infertility

A paper describing discoveries about the role of a gene that is important in all animals, plants, and fungi is published in the 20 July 2004 issue of the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. One of the discoveries is that the gene, named RAD51, plays an essential role in the the process of recombining the genetic material in chromosomes during sexual reproduction in plants....

HIV reveals evolution of a primate defense against intragenomic infiltrators

Published this week on-line in PLoS Biology, Sara Sawyer, Michael Emerman, and Harmit Malik investigate the genetic roots of the battle for evolutionary advantage between HIV-type viruses and the hosts they infect. What they find is surprising....... The gene, APOBEC3G, belongs to a family of primate genes that produce enzymes (in this case, APOBEC3G) that "edit" DNA and RNA, by slipping into vi...

Annals of internal medicine tip sheet, July 20, 2004

... ...After reviewing literature on heart patients traveling by airplane, authors discuss effects of air travel and security devices on pacemakers and implantable automatic defibrillators; preflight screening; and in-flight venous thrombosis. They make recommendations on safe air travel after heart attacks and prevention of in-flight deep venous thrombosis. ... ...Authors also present a nine-it...

Tips from the Journals of the American Society for Microbiology

... ...Filmy residue, or "soap scum", on household shower curtains may be a breeding ground for potentially harmful bacteria say researchers from San Diego State University, California, University of Colorado at Boulder, and Washington University in St. Louis, Missouri. Their findings appear in the July 2004 issue of the journal Applied and Environmental Microbiology.... ..."One househol...

Tips from the Journals of the American Society for Microbiology

...... Researchers from the University of Washington, Seattle and the University of Alaska Fairbanks have found bacterial activity in arctic wintertime sea ice and may attribute its survival to particle or surface attachment. Their findings appear in the January 2004 issue of the journal Applied and Environmental Microbiology....... Previous studies pertaining to bacterial activity in sea ice h...

Study reveals patterns of gene activity in the mouse nervous system

The first published data from a government-funded project provide remarkable new insights into where specific genes are active in the mouse nervous system during development and adulthood. Information from this project will advance researchers' understanding of how particular genes function in the brain and spinal cord, leading to insights about how the nervous system works. It also may lead to...

New guidelines can help health officials better predict and control dengue epidemics

Dengue fever, once under control in many tropical areas of the Americas, has now re-emerged. Globally, some 2.5 to 3.0 billion people live in regions where the disease is endemic. In developing countries, the lack of a closed water system and adequate refuse disposal has encouraged the proliferation of water containers that are ideal larval habitats for Aedes aegypti, the mosquito responsible for...
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