Tag: "atom" at biology news

Purdue research plots new field in plant genomics

...unction in a cell. "Ion" is a general term for any atom or molecule that carries either a positive or negative electrical charge. The ionome, as Salt defines it, includes only those ions composed of a single element, but does not include other charged compounds such as amino acids. The ionome is the core ...

Army awards up to $50 million to establish Institute for Collaborative Biotechnologies

...ronics. This strategy for "bottom-up" fabrication, atom by atom in imitation of nature, contrasts with the current "top-down" practice via subtraction from a bulk m...

UCLA receives NSF award for plasma research

...echnology, to reduce the current kilometer size of atom smashers to meter lengths and for developing compact accelerators used in medical treatments. Space weather, to understand the near-earth plasma environment to guarantee the reliability and performance of communication and weather satellites. And a...

Scientists map signaling molecule crucial to survival, disease

... the phosphate simply composed of one phosphorous atom and four oxygen atoms changes the chemical nature of the amino acid, which in turn changes the protein's shape and prompts a new interaction with a second protein. "Every cellular process is controlled at some level by protein phosphorylation," Kni...

Physics tip sheet #34 - April 1, 2003

...ling the bottom electron from the pile in a carbon atom using an x-ray pulse. All the other electrons fall...electron is emitted along the line from the carbon atom toward the oxygen atom, creating the electron "searchlight". This process, called Auger emission has...

Biomedical engineer constructs illuminating nanoparticles for medical imaging and gene detection

...led with a fluorescent dye at one end and a sulfur atom at the other end. When a nanoparticle probe binds to its target molecule, an energy transfer causes the quencher to be suppressed and the particle to illuminate. Dr. Nie believes the new nanoparticle probes will be more effective than conventional m...

Integration of nanotechnology with biology and medicine will result in major medical advances

...ts scientists who build devices and materials one atom or molecule at a time concentrated almost entirely on electronics, computers, telecommunications, and materials manufacture. Now biomedical nanotechnology, in which bio-engineers construct tiny particles combining inorganic and biological materia...

Carnegie Mellon University chemists create versatile polymer brushes

... controlled nano-structures are manufactured using atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP), which is an exceptionally robust way to uniformly control the growth of every polymer chain, while employing a broad range on monomers. ATRP allows one to design materials with specific chemical and architectur...

Free-radical model too radical

... a fraction of a second before it grabs a hydrogen atom from something, or decomposes. "Its behavior is recorded in a period of a few hundred nanoseconds using light so we can study the resulting spectrum to determine what happened and how fast. We try to understand the molecule's chemistry in a chemical ...

Gene that drives cells to commit suicide also plays key role in development of skeletal muscle

...R. Phosphate is a molecule made up of a phosphorus atom and four oxygen atoms and is often used as a way to activate or inactivate various proteins that control signaling pathways in the cell. However, in myoblasts undergoing differentiation, a different, unknown enzyme places phosphate molecules onto FK...

Alcohol's effects on testosterone

...cohol in which two of the hydrogen atoms on carbon atom #1 of ethanol have been replaced by deuterium atoms, which can then be traced. Study authors used mass spectrometry, a very precise measure of the mass and structure of compounds derived from extracts of tissues and body fluids, to determine both th...

Physics tip sheet #30 - January 9, 2003

...on surfaces is the basis for the emerging field of atom lithography. Interfering laser beams can focus ato.... This paper describes how a radioactive potassium atom is trapped with magnets and lasers to watch it decay. By carefully analyzing the paths of the decay ...

Science's top ten: Discovery of genes' 'control switches' named top advance of 2002

...energy levels. A whole new look at life inside the atom is coming soon to a laser physics lab near you. Look Into the Eyes. Look Deep Into the Eyes. In 2002, several research teams took this advice and the results, a new class of light-responsive cells in the retinas of mammals, mesmerized the field. Th...

Beyond patches and pills: the remarkable future of drug delivery

...sensors -- tiny particles on the order of a single atom that will recognize compounds, such as glucose and cholesterol, whose overproduction may signal disease. The particles will then trigger a mechanism that tells a system (like the pharmacy on a chip) to release another compound to deal with the chemic...

Biomedical scientist testing nanoparticles as early cancer detection agent

...n which scientists build devices and materials one atom or molecule at a time, creating structures that take on new properties by virtue of their miniature size. The basic building block of nanotechnology is a nanoparticle, and a nanometer is one-billionth of a meter, or about 100,000 times smaller than t...

Water world: The sequel

...n says.Working off a probe that tapers to a single atom at its point, the STMsweeps over a sample area barely a nanometer above the surface. Anelectrical current is generated by electrons that "tunnel" through thegap between the atoms on the sample surface and the STM tip. Thiscurrent is extremely sensi...

Rice building Texas' fastest academic supercomputer

...r example, to precisely map the movements of every atom in a large molecule, researchers need to develop a complex mathematical model that contains thousands of variables. Such models are useful for drug designers and biomedical researchers, and a whole new scientific discipline known as bioinformatics ha...

Texas scientists reach out and touch molecules

...cks for it. The scientist has to "add and subtract atom to atom, eyeball to eyeball." Dr. Stan Swanson, Experiment Station biochemist, was able to program the device to calculate the interaction with a large number of atoms while meeting "Touch's rapid cycle time. Swanson figured out how to calculate a 50...

Physics tip sheet #20 July 3, 2002

...ed at a BEC seem to leave before they enter. As an atom hits the BEC, it is absorbed into the collective s...ation travels through the BEC but can escape as an atom once more. The study reinforces the similarity between atoms as waves and light as waves. The result...

Clemson researchers create biosensors to protect nation's food and water supplies

... nm), for example, is one billionth of a meter. An atom measures about one-third of a nanometer. The diameter of a human hair is about 200,000 nm....

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