Tag: "catalyst" at biology news

Cox-2 enzyme plays important role regulating acute pancreatitis and associated lung injury

...piratory distress syndrome. Background While the catalyst for pancreatitis is not well known, it is thought that enzymes normally secreted by the pancreas in an inactive form become activated inside the pancreas and start to digest the pancreatic tissue. This process is called autodigestion and causes swell...

UCLA/Caltech scientists develop new gene therapy approach

...siRNA). The synthetically designed siRNAs act as a catalyst to reduce the expression of specific genes and slow the progression of disease. "Synthetic siRNAs are powerful tools, but scientists have been baffled at how to insert them into the immune system in stable form. You can't just sprinkle them on the ce...

Purdue researchers discover basis for biological clock

...icular protein had two activities: one served as a catalyst for growth activities for 12 minutes and then rested while its other activity took over for the next 12 minutes. "Our model is that of a Janus-head protein with two opposing faces," he said. "One 'face' handles cell enlargement. Then the protein 'fl...

Purdue researchers connect life's blueprints with its energy source

...DNA strands in a cell's nucleus - could serve as a catalyst for important chemical reactions in the body. The discovery of these RNA catalysts, called ribozymes, convinced many scientists that RNA probably existed on earth before DNA or complex proteins, the two other ingredient molecules necessary to create ...

Researchers identify new gene mutation in glaucoma

...e is involved in the pigmentation process as a key catalyst for converting the amino acid tyrosine to a precursor pigment molecule, L-DOPA. The researchers also explored how mutations in the gene for tyrosinase affected mice lacking the FOXC1 gene, which also causes PCG and other forms of glaucoma in humans...

Gene mutation exacerbates eye defect in inherited glaucoma

...e is involved in the pigmentation process as a key catalyst for converting the amino acid tyrosine to a precursor pigment molecule, L-DOPA. The researchers also explored how mutations in the gene for tyrosinase affected mice lacking the FOXC1gene, which also causes PCG and other forms of glaucoma in humans. T...

Premature birth linked to lack of nutrition before pregnancy: study

...ortisol in the blood. The surge of cortisol is the catalyst for the chain of events that eventually lead to its birth. It is believed that human labour follows the same type of process. The problem is when birth occurs prematurely, adds Challis, who is also scientific director of the Institute of Human Develo...

Without enzyme catalyst, slowest known biological reaction takes 1 trillion years

...e a protein that got off the ground as a primitive catalyst for such an extraordinarily slow reaction."Experimental methods used to observe very slow reactions can generate important information for drug design. "Enzymes that do a prodigious job of catalysis are, hands-down, the most sensitive targets for dru...

Small protein helps special RNA make repairs

...s discovered that the protein SmpB is an essential catalyst for the functioning of tmRNA. Messenger RNA (mRNA) can lose its stop codon as a result of damage. Ribosomes that translate damaged mRNA into proteins do not release the incomplete protein. The protein remains attached to the ribosome and which have f...

Bioinformatics/GIS program aim is to protect chimpanzees

...rated electronic infrastructure that will act as a catalyst for the transmission of information across many boundaries, perpetuating a cycle of information transfer and serving as a blueprint for bridging the gaps in other scientific endeavors." Kaur is collaborating with a number of individuals and organizat...

Connecticut chemist receives award for cleaner air technology

...ess. Pfefferle has developed a process that uses a catalyst a substance used to speed up a chemical reaction to allow combustion without the significant formation of nitrogen oxides and carbon monoxide. Pfefferle, who cofounded Precision Combustion in 1986, has dedicated his career to developing clean and e...

Researchers engineer low-cost hydrogen catalyst

...cal engineers report the discovery of a nickel-tin catalyst that can replace the precious metal platinum in a ... that adding tin to what's known as a Raney-Nickel catalyst decreased the rate of methane formation without compromising the rate of hydrogen production." Dumes...

Tufts researchers find new cost-effective catalyst for hydrogen production for fuel cells

...precious metals used today may be removed from the catalyst without affecting its ability to produce hydrogen....We find that for this reaction over a cerium oxide catalyst carrying the gold or platinum, metal nanoparticles are not important. Only a tiny amount of the prec...

The key in the catalyst

...goal now will be to study and then design a better catalyst that could one day have commercial applications. Surya Prakash, a fellow USC chemistry professor who was not involved in the study, said he expects the scientific community will be excited with the study's results. "This is a major breakthrough in m...

Fe-TAML(R) activators developed at Carnegie Mellon help cleanup paper and wood pulp manufacturing

... 177, "Activation of hydrogen peroxide with a TAML catalyst for wastewater remediation in the pulp and paper industry," Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Division). "Right now, we can use Fe-TAMLs with hydrogen peroxide to clean up the unsightly color from chlorine-based bleaching processes used by mills t...

Is this what killed the dinosaurs?

... Earth, Ocean and Planetary Sciences. "They are a catalyst for the formation of ocean basins and fundamentally reshaping the earth's surfaces. The massive outpouring of lava, ashes, and gas can have significant effects on climate, which destabilises the environment and have the potential to dictate the cours...

Fe-TAML(R) activators developed at Carnegie Mellon remove recalcitrant sulfur from automotive fuels

...removed using a powerful, environmentally friendly catalyst developed by Carnegie Mellon University scientists. With further development this technology, which employs a Fe-TAML activator, may provide an attractive alternative to existing methods that rid fuels of sulfur contaminants, which are associated wit...

Rating the performance of residential fuel cells

...Take a hydrocarbon fuel such as natural gas, use a catalyst to extract hydrogen from it, react the hydrogen with air and, presto, you have a home power plant! As the hydrogen and the oxygen in the air combine, they produce electricity. The primary "waste products" of the whole process are water and heat. But ...

Dartmouth study advances prion disease research

...nd Ralf Lucassen, has discovered that RNA may be a catalyst for transformation. "It has been well proven tha...e infectious agent, so it's an ironic twist that a catalyst for the reaction may be RNA," said Supattapone. He emphasized, however, that the findings are consi...

MIT's plasmatron cuts diesel bus emissions, promises better gas engine efficiency

...ed that the device, used with an exhaust treatment catalyst on a diesel engine bus, removed up to 90 percent o...el needed for the removal process. "The absorption catalyst approach under consideration for diesel exhaust NOx removal requires additional fuel to work," expla...

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