Tag: "catalytic" at biology news

Study: Emission of smog ingredients from trees is increasing rapidly

...s, Purves said. Environmental technologies such as catalytic converters and hoses that collect fumes at gas pumps have substantially reduced human-produced VOCs. However, in some parts of the country -- particularly the area extending from Alabama up through the Tennessee Valley and Virginia -- these improveme...

Laboratory grows world record length carbon nanotube

...single-wall carbon nanotube using a process called catalytic chemical vapor deposition from ethanol (alcohol) vapor. Discovered in 1991 by Japanese scientist Sumio Iijima, carbon nanotubes are cylindrical carbon molecules that are very similar in structure to a fullerene, or buckyball, but instead of being a s...

Small, Smac-like molecule encourages death of cancer cells

... that this could be one of the first examples of a catalytic drug," Dr. Harran said. "You may not need one Smac-mimic molecule for each IAP in a cell. You likely need fewer of our Smac mimics than IAPs to neutralize IAP effects, because once the cell death program gets started, it generates more Smac-like acti...

Cleaner water, more efficient electricity among UH chemical research

...synthesized that would use sunlight to promote the catalytic decomposition of water into hydrogen and oxygen. Ramanan Krishnamoorti, associate professor of chemical engineering, will reveal the development of super-strength and lightweight fibers of nylon and other polyester-based polymers, as well as deve...

Gene duplication allowed pigs to have more babies

...t products. It is the evolution of these different catalytic activities that might have caused changes in the pig's reproductive biology. Obviously, the evolution of the aromatase genes is likely to be only a small part of the changes in reproductive endocrinology that enabled these animals to make the trans...

X marks the spot: Vector insertion is viral specific

...shman. "The clearest way forward is to inhibit the catalytic activity of the integrase protein and some of our future work is geared toward that." These are still early days in harnessing knowledge about viral integration in humans to make safer and more effective gene therapies, let alone new drugs ...

The beak of the squid

...e two new studies establish that Argonaute2 is the catalytic engine of mammalian RNAi and provide a specific, structural mechanism for siRNA-targeted mRNA cleavage by Argonaute. Given the role of RNA interference in a wide variety of biological processes and the intense interest in RNAi as a tool for both basi...

Pump failure implicated in a form of dystonia

... gene is the blueprint for a protein that is a key catalytic subunit in a larger enzyme that pumps sodium and potassium across the membranes of neurons, using the energy of ATP to do so. Such transport is critical to maintaining the gradients of those substances that are necessary for the neurons to fire prope...

Argonne scientists determine structure of staph, anthrax enzyme

...ludes that the two are similar. Both have the same catalytic amino acid triad with Cys, His and Asp residues present in both enzymes -- which means that the site of the enzyme-protein reaction is the same. Only the location of one of the residues varies. Joachimiak said the fact that they have the same triad i...

Basic RNA enzyme research promises single-molecule biosensors

... enzyme that you think is pretty far away from the catalytic core---where the chemistry is actually happening---you see that the chemistry is affected directly," Walter said. "This has led to the idea that there is a network of motions that make a protein enzyme act as a whole. We are proposing for the first t...

Device that rapidly detects nerve agents named one of 'greatest army inventions' for 2003

...e Nerve Agent Sensor makes use of the pH-dependent catalytic activity of enzymes that have been embedded in a polymer sponge-like material. If contamination is detected, within seconds the sponge changes color from yellow to red. Beyond its high sensitivity to nerve agents, the Nerve Agent Sensor also is resi...

Yale professor receives Johnson & Johnson Focused Giving award

...demonstrating that RNA as well as protein can have catalytic properties. The RNaseP enzyme in mammals contains at least 10 protein subunits in addition to the RNA subunit. With this grant Altman's group will pursue the basis of their observation that directly inhibiting expression of one of the p...

Increasing ozone over the Atlantic ocean

...e been moderated after 1980 by the introduction of catalytic converters in car exhausts and the mitigation of industrial air pollution. The article in Science is based on ozone measurements by the Max Planck Institute for Chemistry (Mainz) and the German Weather Service (Hohenpeienberg and former Meteorologi...

Botulinum toxin structure offers clues for vaccines/treatments

...deciphering the near atomic-level structure of the catalytic domain of botulinum toxin type E -- one of seven n...n of the amino acid glutamine for glutamate in the catalytic domain of the toxin does not change the overall structure substantially. But it does increase the di...

New research at UNC shows ribosomes do not function as conventional enzymes

... of that direct chemical involvement is that their catalytic effects are extremely temperature dependent. The question was whether the ribosome acts as an enzyme since there has been considerable interest in whether this particle does that." Ribosomes are critical sites of protein synthesis, he said. Inside th...

Ancient Greeks help scientists build environmentally friendly nano devices

...ce area of the nano-films leads to hugely-superior catalytic properties this is currently being exploited to make cheap greenhouse gas sensors. Growing magnets inside these nano-honeycombs produces nano-materials whose magnetic properties can be adapted for new generations of magnetic memories on a chip. The ...

USC awarded $3.5 million to study DNA enzyme

...h G), and, most importantly, theenzyme's exquisite catalytic selectivity, to add the correct base tothe growing strand. The enzyme adds the wrong, mismatched DNA base only once inevery 10,000 to one million bases. Further proofreading drops theoverall error rate to one in a billion-about six mistakes per celld...

Methuselah enzymes: SEN and the art of molecule maintenance

...limited the possibilities of harnessing enzymes as catalytic tools outside the cell, in uses that range from bi...oparticles can result in significantly more stable catalytic activity," added Jay Grate, PNNL laboratory fellow and SENs co-inventor. Kim and Grate, working i...

Top US scientist honored with prestigious award

...ycoproteins on the parasite's surface via a unique catalytic reaction. Sialic acid plays a key role in helping the parasite attach itself to the host and can also reduce the effectiveness of the host's immune response. In addition to this year's L'ORAL-UNESCO For Women in Science Laureate awards, an internati...

Marine sponges provide model for nanoscale materials production

...hey represent a low temperature, biotechnological, catalytic route to the nanostructural fabrication of valuable materials. The research group is now translating these discoveries into practical engineering. Currently these materials are produced at very high temperatures in high vacuums, using caustic chemica...

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