Tag: "catalyzes" at biology news

Study points to positive results from vitamin D supplements for MS sufferers

...f sunlight a person receives. Exposure to sunlight catalyzes the production of vitamin D in the skin. In low sunlight, the skin produces significantly less vitamin D. In support of a connection among sunlight, vitamin D and multiple sclerosis, Cantorna points out that the incidence of the disease is nearly z...

New images reveal the workings of cellular protein factories

...ding blocks in the proper order. The ribosome then catalyzes the formation of chemical bonds between the building blocks. The images obtained by Noller's group show not only the ribosome itself but also messenger RNA and transfer RNAs in the positions they occupy during the process of protein synthesis. Most o...

A paradox helps explain how aspirin works

...in inhibits an enzyme, cyclo-oxygenase (COX), that catalyzes the generation of prostaglandin from cell membrane fatty acid precursors. But the suppression of prostaglandin production could not fully account for aspirin's effectiveness because, after 15 minutes, aspirin is broken down in the body and becomes sa...

Enzyme is crucial for production of plant growth hormone

...me in yucca revealed that the enzyme most likely catalyzes the oxygenation of the compound tryptamine, a key finding, said Chory. "That finding made us go back and look at the proposed pathways for auxin biosynthesis, none of which have been sorted out in the plant. And since the tryptamine that this enzyme...

High-resolution image illuminates catalytic engine of the ribosome

...chainlike protein molecule. The larger 50S subunit catalyzes the formation of the bond between each amino acid and the growing protein chain. Steitz and his colleagues at Yale University used the 2.5 billion electron volt x-ray beam at Brookhaven National Laboratory's National Synchrotron Light Source to perf...

Folic Acid Lowers Risk Of Cardiovascular Disease

...(MTHFR). This enzyme with thetongue-twisting name catalyzes a critical step in the biochemical chain reactionwithin cells that converts homocysteine to an essential amino acid calledmethionine. The U-M study is being published in the April 1 issue of NatureStructural Biology. "This work illustrates why basi...

Purdue Study Breathes New Life Into Question Of How Life Began

...d thatwithin a living cell, virtually no substance catalyzes its own formation, so youwhen you talk about a theoretical system that can create life, you want achemical system in which both self replication and cross replication occurs." In the most recent round of experiments, the Scripps group recentlydev...

Neurogenetics Lab Scan Suggests Genetic Linkage On Chromosomes 4 And 11

...ncipal enzymes involved in alcohol metabolism, ADH catalyzes the conversion of alcohol to acetaldehyde. High ADH activity produces excessive acetaldehyde, which can cause uncomfortable facial flushing, diminish tolerance, and thereby prevent drinking that might lead to alcohol dependence. (Deficient activity b...

Nitrate Reductase: A Magical Enzyme?

...of the enzyme with the goal ofunderstanding how it catalyzes the nitrate reduction process," says Campbell."In the next couple of years we hope to get extensive information about crystalstructure that will help us solve the structure/function mystery. Ultimately weneed to be able to produce large quantities of...

"Genes, Vitamins, Homocyst(e)ine And Cardiovascular Diseases"

...methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase(MTHFR)], which catalyzes the synthesis of the active form of circulating folicacid in blood. The frequency of homozygotes "wild type" (C/C in nucleotide 677of the gene) was about 40%, of heterozygotes (C/T) about 50%, and of homozygotesfor the mutation (T/T) about 10% (not ...

Max-Planck Researchers Unravel The Structure Of The Methane Forming Enzyme

... reductase, a key enzyme of methanogenesis that catalyzes a highly complex chemical reaction namely the reduction of a thioether to a hydrocarbon. Methanogenesis is only carried out by a group of strictly anaerobic microbes called methanogens which use the formation of methane for the purpose...

New 'Twist' In Proteins Offers Possible Route To Improved Antibiotics

... outermembrane of the bacteria. Specifically, LpxA catalyzes the transfer of the14-carbon fatty acid hydroxymyr...e," which is the part of the protein that actually catalyzes thechemical reaction. Any successful antibiotic must plug into the active site,blocking its action, ...

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