Tag: "circuits" at biology news

New study shows hope for treating inhalant abuse

...ociated with the activation of pleasure and reward circuits in the brain. Inhalant abuse is among the most common forms of drug abuse, particularly among pre- and early adolescents, who inhale or "huff" chemical vapors found in many common household products that are not generally thought of as drugs. ...

Alzheimer's disease is not accelerated aging

...e to age-associated influences on frontal-striatal circuits of the brain, including an area called the corpus callosum a tract of white matter that connects the two cerebral hemispheres. The accelerated memory loss of Alzheimer's disease is more likely due to changes in the medial temporal lobe memory system...

Knock knock knocking on rhythm's neural doors

...t rhythmic movements are generated from oscillator circuits in the brain, and it may be that these inherently rhythmic neural systems make it to easy for us to swing to the rhythmic of music," said the scientist. Meanwhile, Schaal and his colleagues are working on converting their results to humanoid robot al...

DuPont scientist named one of the world's top young innovators by MIT's 'Technology Review' Magazine

...al devices that are the norm in telecommunications circuits today. Her research objective is to integrate photonics devices onto a single chip, providing quicker and more cost effective ways to communicate. The editors of Technology Review and an elite panel of judges chose 100 individuals (the "TR100") unde...

Green, leafy spinach may soon power cellphones and laptops

...e head of a pin. "They are the smallest electronic circuits I know of," said researcher Marc A. Baldo, assistant professor of electronic engineering and computer science at MIT. Baldo and other researchers from MIT, the University of Tennessee and the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, including electrical and...

Loss of the neuronal adhesion protein d-catenin leads to severe cognitive dysfunction

... for synaptic plasticity, a process by which brain circuits can be modified during learning, it has been unknown wether deletions of d-catenin would alter this process. In the new work, researchers Inbal Israely and Xin Liu at UCLA show that mice with deletions of d-catenin display severe learning and memory...

Analysis of biological clock may lead to greater understanding of human disease

...rg, Germany have analyzed the mechanism of genetic circuits by which the fruit fly regulates its circadian rhy...o shed light on the function of individual control circuits in biology, with a long-term perspective to rationally understand causes of diseases, and to design ...

Joslin Diabetes Center launches research section on developmental and stem cell biology

...ll biology, because they will identify the control circuits that govern how stem cells function. In addition, while the ability to study human stem cells has opened up extraordinary new therapeutic opportunities, it is still necessary simultaneously to study stem cells in animal models, in which it is possib...

OHSU scientists find gene influencing drug withdrawal

...e can begin to study how this gene regulates brain circuits involved in drug dependence and withdrawal," said Kari Buck, Ph.D., associate professor of behavioral neuroscience and senior author of the study, which appears in the current issue of the journal Nature Neuroscience. The discovery also is more evide...

Researchers make promiscuous animals monogamous by manipulating genes

...o becoming addicted to drugs: both activate reward circuits in the brain." The researchers' next step is to determine why there is extensive variability in behaviors among individuals within a species in order to better understand the evolution of social behavior....

How genes get us wired

... act along the length of the body to control nerve circuits at each particular level of the body." Capecchi agrees: "You are using the same gene outside and inside the brain to allow nerves to make the appropriate circuits. This may be true not only for nerves in the face, but for other Hox genes that help...

NASA researchers customize 'lab-on-a-chip' technology

...the same micro-fabrication technique used to print circuits on computer chips. Chemicals and fluid samples can...rated, and controlled using channels or electrical circuits embedded in the chip. On Earth, some basic lab-on-a-chip technology approaches are being used for co...

Brain control

... Engineers at Nizhny Novgorod built the integrated circuits that serve as a model of the agile controller. McKenna explains that it represents a "weakly chaotic system" of neurons coupled in a pattern that enables the controller to emulate the function of the olivo-cerebellar system. The controller can be us...

ASU advance could provide insight into human's ability to recognize patterns

...ation of the model is possible by using electronic circuits as phase-locked loops. "Computers can do very fast computation that humans cannot do, but humans can recognize patterns so much better than computers," Lai said. "The question is why. What is the fundamental mechanism that a biological system like us...

Prenatal nicotine primes adolescent brain for addiction

...ier exposed rats showed a weaker brain response in circuits using acetylcholine -- a natural chemical messenger that plays a critical role in learning and memory -- as compared to rats that did not experience the prenatal exposure. Nicotine's activity in the brain stems from its ability to mimic acetylcholine...

Keck Futures Initiative announces grant recipients

...adhesive protein-protein interactions and feedback circuits collaborate to provide specificity in such situati... processing of stochastic fluctuations within gene circuits and networks, including stochastic modulation of nonlinear biochemical processes, stochastically val...

OHSU researchers discover possible connection between infant hormone exposure, obesity

...s of the hypothalamus (ARH). They found that brain circuits associated with the ARH were less developed in mutant mice that lack leptin when compared to normal mice. Specifically, they noted diminished development of axons from ARH neurons in the leptin-deficient mice. Axons are considered the "arms" of a bra...

Leptin rewires the brain's feeding circuits

...ity in the "wiring diagrams" of the neural feeding circuits of individuals may influence whether a person will... what extent is the wiring diagram of these neural circuits different in obese people relative to lean people. "If we knew that the basic circuitry that control...

Fat hormone leptin alters brain architecture and activity, which in turn drives feeding behavior

...fects both the architecture and function of neural circuits in the brain. The research is published April 2 in...ucing effects. "The malleability of these feeding circuits by leptin suggest the possibility that the brain's wiring may be different in lean versus obese indi...

Chatty finches

... in shaping the architecture and function of brain circuits that control song learning and song production. "The discovery of FoxP2 in birds is only the beginning, there is no direct evidence yet that the gene is necessary for song learning or singing," cautions Scharff. Experiments to interfere with the expr...

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