Tag: "divergence" at biology news

Identifying novel small RNAs

...whether this difference represents an evolutionary divergence or simply our incomplete knowledge of the full ran...c sRNA functions are the result of an evolutionary divergence or our own lack of understanding....

New great white shark study has conservation implications

...drial DNA results indicate there was a significant divergence -- probably two to three million years ago between the sharks from Australia and New Zealand and those from South Africa." Although population estimates are difficult to make, great white shark catches in California declined from more than 60,000 po...

The RANKL cytokine at 2.6

...ir corresponding receptors. Still, the substantial divergence in primary sequence within this family has made it difficult to predict the structure of other members with confidence. Here, Lamn et al. report a high-resolution crystal structure of the RANK ligand (RANKL), a TNF relative that acts through its rec...

Fish may show how nature diversifies

...posed to be studied, the timescale of evolutionary divergence is enormous, making it difficult to sort out which genetic changes are truly responsible for species differences. In contrast with the sticklebacks, this genetic approach lets the organism tell us where the relevant genes are. Rather than betting on ...

Human and fly studies tally good and bad mutations, stress ongoing role of natural selection

...By comparing variation within the human genome and divergence from our ape ancestors, the researchers determined that about 35 percent of the accumulated changes were "good." "The proportion is shockingly high," said Wu, "for someone like myself who grew up in the neutralist era." It means one advantageous su...

Researcher traces gene development in 'last common link'

...rey ancestors evolved relatively shortly after the divergence of vertebrates from invertebrates they provide the next stepping stone in the story of T-box gene evolution. By comparing the expression of T-box genes in Amphioxus, lamprey and mice, Gibson-Brown hopes to better understand the role that changes ...

Scientists push back primate origins from 65 million to 85 million years ago

... the earth and wiping out dinosaurs. If times of divergence within the primate tree are revised accordingly, it is likely that the divergence of humans from chimps occurred about 8 Mya rather than 5 Mya. An earlier origin for primates make...

NHGRI prioritizes model organisms for sequencing

...tionship to the human; there is only 1.2% sequence divergence between the two genomes. It may be possible to better understand the distinct differences between the two organisms by studying the two sequences. Comparing the human and chimp genomes, in particular, may provide insights into human diseases because...

Insect yields clues to evolution of species

... information from DNA sequences revealed that such divergence in mating preferences and morphology has evolved numerous times in this species, according to the article. Thus, the research indicates that adaptation to different habitats may play both a crucial and repeatable role in the early stages of speciatio...

Unique feeding behavior discovered for snakes

...s represent an interesting example of evolutionary divergence of behavior between closely related species," Voris says. "This is only one of many examples of how the tropics are uniquely suited for gaining insights into evolution, diversity and specialization."...

A unique hemoglobin may help the baby kangaroo's journey to the mothers pouch

... other globins before the bird-mammal evolutionary divergence over 300 million years ago. The gene for this globin has been found in other marsupials from different families, but not in any mammals other than marsupials. Researchers wanted to see if this gene is expressed in other marsupials or if the protein ...

January GEOLOGY and GSA TODAY media highlights

... estimates of up to 1500 million years ago for the divergence of animals. Possible reasons for the paucity of animals in the Precambrian fossil record include the lack of hard parts for fossilization and the possibility that Precambrian animals were small in size and thus easily degraded. However, recently, fos...

Masatoshi Nei of Penn State honored in Japan with International Prize for Biology

...elationships among organisms, the times of species divergence from common ancestors, the location of gene region... the origins of populations and the times of their divergence from common ancestors. Nei applied this technique to human populations and obtained the first evide...

Researchers help trace origin of Madagascars mammals

... "At long last, statistical methods for estimating divergence ages among organisms are becoming sufficiently sophisticated that we can have confidence in the accuracy of the age estimates," notes Anne Yoder, Associate Professor of evolutionary biology at Yale University, Field Museum research associate, and lea...

Squirrels' evolutionary 'family tree' reveals major influence of climate, geology

... followed "there appears to have been a very rapid divergence of squirrels into five major branches," Roth said....nd continental land masses of Southeast Asia. That divergence coincided with extremely low local sea levels, perhaps caused by geological changes in the ocean flo...

A new way to compare human and other primate genomes

...onkeys. This is insufficient time for much genetic divergence to have taken place. Consequently, nonhuman primat... "The additive collective sequence differences or divergence of these nonhuman primates as a group was comparable to that of humans and mice," Rubin says. "This ...

New, more effective option for gene data mining identified

...e visual observations." The KL method uses the KL divergence to measure the similarity between two gene expression profiles and a self-organizing map algorithm for clustering. The clustering can be compared to creating a series of bins, each containing a different colored ball. The algorithm sorts data int...

Scientists debate meaning of 40-million-year-old primate fossils in Nature

...ecord, which leads to a serious underestimation of divergence times for the entire group." Consisting of teeth a...fossil record have led scientists to underestimate divergence times throughout the primate evolutionary tree. Furthermore, new molecular trees also indicate that ...

Natural selection's fingerprint identified on fruit fly evolution

...statistical means to compare the amount of genetic divergence in Nup 96 that existed between the two species to the amount of divergence among individual members of the same species. Members of one species, which readily exchange genes, ...

Genes that paint fly derrieres hint at convergence

...pecies that are in the same range of morphological divergence as the house cat, the leopard, the cheetah and the panther," he says. In that context, Gompel says, it demonstrates how a few genes, influenced in subtle ways, can control body decoration, coloring and patterning across the animal kingdom....

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