Tag: "drives" at biology news

Atmospheric chemistry key to global and local air pollution

...r pollutants and form ozone. "The hydroxyl radical drives atmospheric oxidation by reacting with chemicals emitted from Earths surface, thus creating new chemicals that are more easily scavenged and removed by aerosols, clouds and rain," Brune told attendees today (Jan. 15) at the annual meeting of the Amer...

Darwinian evolution of reproductive proteins in mammals

...onstrate for the first time that natural selection drives rapid changes in these female proteins at the site of sperm-egg interaction. Beyond providing long-sought molecular evidence in female proteins for evolutionary theories about sperm competition, sexual conflict and cryptic female choice, this study's...

UC Berkeley chemists detail secrets of ionization, reasons behind water's central role in chemistry of life

...e electrical voltage associated with that, is what drives all life processes," Chandler said. This detailed picture comes from the team's calculations on what happens in pure water, which can be considered a weak acid, Chandler said. Water, or H2O, is composed of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom, but ...

Competing fruit flies show evolution in action

...ntense competition in the "middle" of a population drives more variation at the edges, said evolutionary biologist Sergey Nuzhdin. Bolnick's work provides experimental evidence for this, he said. Bolnick set out to test this hypothesis by studying the effect of competition on Drosophila fruitflies. He set ...

New insights into Earth's biological record

... global observations of the biological engine that drives life on Earth. The research is part of a study published in this week's issue of Science. Scientists looked at the first three years of daily observations of ocean and land plants from the Sea-Viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS) mission. Th...

First chapter of Earth's "biological record" documented from space

... global observations of the biological engine that drives life on Earth. Researchers expect this new detailed record of the countless forms of plant life that cover land and oceans may reveal as much about how our living planet functions today as fossil and geologic records reveal about Earth's past. "This ...

Understanding lens development

...ecessary component of the molecular machinery that drives normal lens development. It is in this paper that Dr. Kondoh and colleagues synthesize the action of these two transcription factors. Dr. Kondoh and colleagues determined that Pax6 binds Sox2 on a specific sequence of a lens-specific crystallin gene....

Putting randomness to work: unique form of nanoscale random motion may drive key cellular functions

...ecule exchange of ATP for ADP. The energy that drives that process is what's important." The switching operation that involves acceptance or removal of a phosphate controls a protein's affinity for binding to other proteins it encounters as Brownian motion moves it through cells. "What Ron ha...

Biting may drive division of labor among social wasp workers

...eproductive status," he said. "We don't know what drives biting behavior. There is a possibility that it might be genetic, or it could be chemical because we do know that social insects tend to react chemically to each other." He plans further work to determine the root of biting behavior in P. occide...

Earlier weaning, high-energy diet produce higher quality beef

...ich meat quality rather than average cattle weight drives the payments made to producers. Producers for years have weaned their animals at seven months and let them forage in pastures for up to a year before feeding a corn-based finishing diet. The researchers latest study, published in the July issue of ...

Computers help veterinarians diagnosis pets with rare diseases

...d up by veterinary literature. "A standard lexicon drives the system," he continued. "That means that the same terminology is used in every instance, across species, breeds and diseases. That was the hardest part of the project - nailing down the nomenclature for all links." By 1989, the partners had the c...

Researchers find gene for rare disorder that paralyzes children's legs

...reatment could be years away, it is this goal that drives the research, says Fink, an associate professor in the Department of Neurology of the U-M Medical School and a member of the Geriatrics Research, Education and Clinical Center at the Ann Arbor Veterans Affairs Medical Center. His hope springs from th...

Science's Top Ten: nanoscale computing circuits named top scientific advance of 2001

...trinos are a byproduct of the nuclear furnace that drives the sun. In the late 1960s, researchers calculated the number of electron neutrinos that should be streaming away from the sun--but the actual number of detected neutrinos came up short. This year, researchers at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory in C...

Scientists reveal fine detail of cell's energy machinery

...across the cell membrane. This proton motive force drives the generation of ATP," said Professor Iwata. Professor Iwata and his team are the first to solve the structure of a respiratory enzyme that produces the proton motive force by the "redox-loop mechanism" originally proposed by Peter Mitchell. "Fort...

Going beyond the genome

...the dynamic nature of the encoded protein products drives cellular processes. All proteins (with the exception of some mitochondrial and chloroplast proteins) are synthesized on ribosomes in the cytosol, but depending upon their function, the proteins are transported to their specific place of action. Since...

Experimental Biology 2002, Translating the Genome

...he enteric nervous system (the nervous system that drives the GI system) and its effect on gut diseases, and mechanisms of craniofacial bone growth. In other Experimental Biology 2002 events, a new public policy symposium will bring national leaders to discuss science policy implications of bioterro...

Forest fragmentation and birds

..., and we need to enhance our understanding of what drives birds to inhabit one landscape versus another....

Peripheral 'Swatch' watches are a powerful force in bodys circadian rhythms

...imens for patients. A better understanding of what drives those local rhythms, and how they go wrong, could aid physicians efforts. The discovery that different genes perform similar circadian functions also bears on attempts to move beyond the Human Genome Project, to find functions for the tens of thousa...

Satellite data to predict plankton blooms by analyzing ocean color

... light green each spring. This production in turn drives ocean food webs. New research, published in the journal Science on April 26, assesses the color of the ocean and finds that it may yield clues about the relation between marine ecosystems and the climate system. The research was funded by the Natio...

From arts to neurobiology versatile Duke scientist chosen for NSF Waterman Award

...inary curiosity on multiple levels, a quality that drives his research. At Duke, while conducting his groundbreaking research into how birds may have similar brain structures to generate song that humans use in learned vocalizations, Jarvis discovered how little scientists know about the language-foste...

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