Tag: "enzymes" at biology news
Virus study reveals how nature 'super-sizes' tiny structures
...iruses, in addition to their genome, carry all the enzymes
needed to dissolve the host cell wall, deposit their genomes and carry out new rounds of DNA replication." This presence of many cellular components, together with the common structural features found in the study, suggests that the two viruses may h...
Researchers find structure of enzyme that catalyzes 78-million-year reaction
...e, but what we found was elegant simplicity." All enzymes
work in the body at similar rates and must act pre...search, said the finding will help explain how all enzymes
function. "Once you discover how a particular enzyme works then you can build inhibitors for it," h...
Brookhaven Lab collaboration determines the atomic structure of a key enzyme called a 'biological blowtorch'
...research is the first step in analyzing a class of enzymes
that may be used in cancer therapy by shutting dow...ferent application, genetically engineered P450cam enzymes
may be used to eat up toxic chemicals, such as PCBs and trichloroethylene, in chemical manufacturing...
University of Colorado salmon study spawns new insight into human brain aging
...ecursor protein, or APP, is chopped into pieces by enzymes
-- causes brain neurons to degenerate and die, said CU-Boulder doctoral student and lead study author Tammy Maldonado. But other researchers now believe beta-amyloid deposits in the brain are relatively harmless and may even be beneficial. The CU-Bo...
Common pesticide product reduces testosterone levels
...ells was due to the down regulation of one of four enzymes
that catalyze the reactions that occur during androgen biosynthesis. To determine the reversibility of HPTE-induced testosterone inhibition, the researchers waited 18 hours in each case to see whether testosterone production in these cells recover...
Foods of the future
...it is useless without the catalytic processes of enzymes
in the body that digest and metabolize it. Unfortunately, many of the more than 600 known human genetic defects impair the efficiency and functioning of these enzymes. (J. R. Whitaker, Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Ca...
Reports of "weird life" almost stranger than fiction
...o's Front Range. Extreme life could yield powerful enzymes
or proteins that could attack such environmental problems, he said. After all, an enzyme isolated from a bacterium living in a Yellowstone National Park hot spring has made possible DNA fingerprinting and a host of related genetic studies and proce...
Unique study reveals new details on how genes are transcribed
...d systematically at a single molecule level and on enzymes
that were actively transcribing," says Bustamante. "Single molecule experiments can provide a unique look into the molecular mechanisms responsible for mechano-chemical conversion processes and reveal behavior which would be averaged out in tradition...
$11-million grant supports study of how genes affect cancer chemotherapy
...ecently he has focused on genetic variation in the enzymes
that metabolize a powerful and widely used antican...acologist who has studied genetic variation in the enzymes
that control metabolism of the topoisomerase-inhibitor etoposide. Although an effective drug in the...
Expanding life's alphabet
...nto single strands of DNA. During DNA replication, enzymes
called polymerases read single-strand templates and then add appropriate bases to form pairs-adenine to thymine, cytosine to guanine and vice versa. An unnatural base has a different shape and binds differently, and in early experiments the team foun...
New class of drugs for erectile dysfunction unveiled
...type 6 -- and that non-selective blockade of these enzymes
may trigger some of the drug's adverse side effects, especially facial flushing and visual disturbances. In an effort to create a better drug, the researchers identified a novel class of phosphodiesterase inhibitors that act on the same target as sil...
Oral exposure to anti-oxidant glutathione could help prevent flu infections
...t, the Emory scientists discovered that one of the enzymes
that uses glutathione to detoxify cancer-causing chemicals and oxidants is deposited in the mucous layer lining the mouth and nose, thus providing an extracellular barrier to toxic chemicals. This led them to consider a possible role for glutathione...
...ity of Jerusalem in Israel, for example, are using enzymes
rather than bacteria to make batteries that could be implanted in people's bodies. Powered by blood sugar, the batteries could one day power pacemakers, insulin pumps and prostheses....
Researchers identify novel penicillin-resistance gene in pneumonia bacteria
...cci rebuilt the target proteins of the antibiotic, enzymes
called penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs). Working in assembly-line fashion, PBPs play an important role in building the bacterial cell wall, an uninterrupted protective network of molecules that maintains the integrity of the cell. Penicillin produ...
Matrisian named Vanderbilt's first chair of cancer biology
...y recognized researcher in the role of proteolytic enzymes
in cancer, has been named as the department's firs...well known for her work on the role of proteolytic enzymes
in cancer and particularly cancer metastasis, and she has more than 120 scientific publications to h...
Novel antiviral drug concept targets number of human viruses
...ed that by inhibiting a particular set of cellular enzymes
upon which the virus depends they can successfully...ctivity without damaging the cells." The pivotal enzymes
are called cyclin-dependent kinases, or cdks. Cells use cdks, along with other proteins, to drive an...
ZymoGenetics discovers potential new therapy for autoimmune diseases
...re, the company is the world's largest producer of enzymes
for industrial use. Headquartered in Denmark, Novo Nordisk employs approximately 15,200 people in 68 countries and markets its products in 179 countries. Its B shares are listed on the stock exchanges in Copenhagen and London. Its ADSs are listed on ...
Pouch's newfound role tied to potential new treatment for malaria
...e (a subcellular pouch) with a membrane and active enzymes
-- and it may provide a new line of attack against malaria. The researchers began studying the compartment in 1994 with funding from the National Institutes of Health. They labeled the organelle an acidocalcisome in recognition of its acidic and cal...
UCSF study reveals mechanism of telomerase enzyme that could lead to target for cancer therapy, cell regeneration
...represent an intermediate step in the evolution of enzymes
from strictly RNA sequences to strictly protein se...erase supports an evolutionary scheme in which RNA enzymes
acquired protein components evolving into ribonucleoprotein enzymes," she says. "The RNA components ...
Key DNA enzyme can tolerate more mutations than expected
...e paradigms of evolution. The active area of these enzymes
is one of the most conserved sites in nature -- th...he National Academy of Sciences. Polymerases are enzymes
-- a type of protein -- that can replicate DNA. DNA forms the genes that give us our characteristics...
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