Tag: "evolution" at biology news

All Mixed Up: How Do Hybrids Fit Into The Picture?

... and how these parasites in turn could impact the evolution ofhybridizing species. Robert Fritz from Vassar College investigates the environmental and geneticfactors that lead to plant hybrid fitness. "Genetic composition is an important factor in determining fitness, as hybridshave the capacity to develop ...

Harbor Branch Scientists Discover Bioluminescent Octopus

...is extremelycommon in the oceans, the study of its evolution has been greatly hampered bythe lack of a fossil record. Light organs such as these that retain some indication of their previous function therefore offer valuableinsight into evolutionary history. Widder believes that the change from sucker to lig...

Flatworms Are Oldest Living Ancestors To Those Of Us With Right And Left Sides, Reported In The 19 March Issue Of Science

...ish or sea anemones of today. Acrucial step in the evolution of more complex organisms was the transition tobody shapes with bilateral symmetry. (For example, most of the features thatallow an animal to move itself from one place to another--legs, fins, wings--canonly develop on bilateral organisms.) In spite ...

Studies At Cedars-Sinai Confirm Identity Of An Elusive 'Receptor' In Human Cells -- A Breakthrough In Understanding, Fighting Septic Shock

...e response systemhas been conserved throughout the evolution from plants to fruit flies tovertebrates and humans, to play a role in our immediate reaction to infections.By identifying the receptors and the signaling pathways, perhaps we can soonbegin to develop new approaches to stop the cascade of this lethal...

New Findings On Primitive Shark Contradicts Current View Of Jaw Evolution

...presented today at a conference on earlyvertebrate evolution hosted by the Natural History Museum of London, revealsevidence of jaw evolution that pre-dates Cladesolache by roughly 30 millionyears. "This is the earliest shark braincase that ...

Researchers Find Unexpected Feature In Plankton Nervous System

...esearchers' work has implications for the study of evolution as wellas the understanding of the biology of the oceans. The copepod research is funded by a grant from the National Science FoundationDivision of Integrative Biology and neuroscience. UH's electron microscopefacility is supported by the National In...

National Science Board Honors Maxine Frank Singer With Vannevar Bush Award

...reas of biochemistryand molecular biology, and the evolution of defective viruses. She pioneeredthe isolation and characterization of enzymes involved in nucleic acidmetabolism. Her work made it possible to make the RNA molecules that led to thediscovery of the genetic code. Since 1988, Singer has be...

Earliest Modern Tree Lived 360-345 Million Years Ago

...tter fed the streams and was a major factor in the evolution offreshwater fishes, whose numbers and varieties exploded in that time, andinfluenced the evolution of other marine ecosystems. It was the first plant toproduce an extensive root system, so had a prof...

Immune Response To Hepatitis B Spares Liver Cells

...cytolytic process should bestrongly favored during evolution and possibly extend to other pathogens,because it provides a strong survival advantage for both virus and host." NIAID is a component of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). NIAID conductsand supports research to prevent, diagnose and treat illn...

Researchers Identify Molecule That May Be Key In Pheromone Processing

... are tobe detected - doesn't seem to matter in the evolution of sensory receptorneurons and their signalling pathways." In addition, the authors note, the human form of the gene coding for TRP2 hasbeen mutated and now produces a protein that is nonfunctional. This supportsevidence based on anatomy suggesting...

Researchers Engineer A Way To Improve T-Cell Receptors

...rlier at theU. of I., in combination with directed evolution -- a genetic engineering processin which a protein...ors may be ofgeneral use in the study and directed evolution of other proteins that to datehave been impossible to improve," Kranz said. The yeast-display system...

Fossil Footprints Show Foot-Movement Similarity In Dinosaurs And Birds

...onvergence was present veryearly in theropod evolution and inherited by birds," said researcher KevinMiddleton, a Brown graduate student. "An opposable first toe did not evolve untillater." Gatesy and Middleton conducted the research with Farish Jenkins Jr., of Harvard University, and...

NICHD Researchers Discover Gene For Major Brain Structure

...obox genes have changed littleduring the course of evolution and seem to fulfill similar functions, fromroundworm to man. Essentially, these genes pave the way for developing embryocells to later form organs and tissues. To conduct their experiment, the researchers used a procedure known asgene knocko...

Walker named a Fellow of the British Royal Society

...lker is one of the world's foremost experts on the evolution of primates andhumans. His research involves searching for primate and human fossils in rocksdated from about 30 million to 1 million years ago and conducting laboratoryanalyses of the fossils to extract as much environmental and behavioralinformati...

Studies confirm the identity of an elusive 'receptor' in human cells -- A breakthrough in the effort to understand and fight septic shock

... response system has been conserved throughout the evolution fromplants to fruit flies to vertebrates and humans, to play a role in ourimmediate reaction to infections. By identifying the receptors and thesignaling pathways, perhaps we can soon begin to develop new approaches tostop the cascade of this lethal ...

Evolutionary genetic tools trace cancer clone lines

...ted computational tools developed to trace species evolution bycomparing DNA sequences have now been used to tr...issue of the AmericanJournal of Pathology, genetic evolution analysis indicates that adenoma andcarcinoma lines can arise from a common precursor but subsequentl...

Discovery of new bird species in China, oldest beak shows evolution complexity

...a finding that offers new evidence that early bird evolution wasconsiderably more complex than previously belie... is a mosaicpattern we see very much in vertebrate evolution - in other words, variouslineages showing both primitive and advanced features at the same time. Wha...

Yerkes researchers find primate face recognition can be purely visual

...led "kin selection" is extremely important for the evolution of complex societies."Complex societies are built ...rstood, but that may have played a role in our own evolution as well. Inever more extended family networks, where one doesn't always grow up with closekin, these...

Molecular biologists prune branches from the animal family tree

...ved -- having changedvery slowly throughout animal evolution -- they provide powerful clues about theevolutionary history of an organism. Closely related animals share a similarassortment of Hox genes, while more distant relations have fewer incommon. By decoding the Hox gene sequences of ancient groups of...

Dinosaur fossils reveal evolution's big picture, says Paul Sereno

...cur over millions of years, are crucial aspects of evolution notaccessible from the anatomy and genes of living animals. "Certain questionsabout evolution can only be investigated at the grandest scales using the fossilrecord," said Sereno, who is from th...

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(Date:4/14/2014)... treat children with uncomplicated acute appendicitis is a reasonable ... fewer missed school days, according to a pilot study. ... Hospital and published online April 12 in the ... the first prospective study on nonoperative management of acute ... , Researchers enrolled 77 patients age 7 to 17 ...
(Date:4/14/2014)... 2014, Perth, Australia. Drug discovery company Proteomics International ... of a companion diagnostic (CDx) test with the ... The research team authenticated the panel of biomarkers ... samples. Seven biomarkers were validated at high stringency ... The mass spectrometry data was then cross-validated using ...
(Date:4/14/2014)... 2014) When it comes to the cost and ... Patients get the best care when they are treated ... extensive experience in their current job, according to a ... and Columbia Business School. The study was published in ... Applied Economics . , The review of more ...
(Date:4/13/2014)... STANFORD, Calif. A low-cost empowerment program for ... and sexual harassment of these girls, who live ... and are frequently attacked, a large new study ... Stanford University School of Medicine, Lucile Packard Children,s ... No Worldwide, validated the program,s effectiveness in combating ...
(Date:4/11/2014)... the processes that control brain cell production could pave ... brain-related disorders. , Scientists have gained new understanding of ... how and when nerve and brain cells are formed ... and keeps it healthy. Their findings could help explain ... which is a fundamental characteristic of many diseases including ...
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