Tag: "folded" at biology news
Prion propagation: Avoiding the toxic oligomer
...ny protein's function is its structure. Improperly folded
proteins are normally destroyed. But in a wide range of diseases, including prion (from proteinaceous and infectious) diseases and neurodegenerative diseases like Parkinson disease and Alzheimer disease, amyloid fibrils, or plaques--misshapen protei...
Disruption of protein-folding causes neurodegeneration, mental retardation
...endoplasmic reticulum (ER) site where proteins are folded
into their proper shape. This excess GM1 causes de...n turn, the accumulation of unfolded or improperly folded
proteins triggers the unfolded protein response" (UPR) in the cell. The UPR is the cell's emergency ...
Scientists visualise cellular handmaiden that restores shape to proteins
...an explanation of how the molecule works. Properly folded
proteins tuck away the elements that don't mingle well with water - a property known as hydrophobicity - inside their structure. Denatured proteins with their mis-organised shape allow normally hidden elements to display on the outside, making them a...
One step further toward treatment for degenerative diseases
...ritical process as proteins that are not correctly folded
or shaped are extremely harmful to cells and are t...me that is sensitive to very subtle changes in the folded
state of a protein," explained Dr. David Thomas. "Proteins are the building blocks and machines of ...
American Society for Microbiology honors Timothy Yahr with 2004 Merck Irving S. Sigal Memorial Award
...) system, a poorly understood mechanism for moving folded
preproteins across or into the inner membrane of E. coli. He developed a TAT translocation assay that is now being used in several laboratories in the United States and Europe. TAT translocation has recently been identified as a factor in P. aerugino...
St. Jude researchers create image of enzyme that orchestrates natural genetic engineering
..., like the free arm of one person pushing into the folded
arms of another person. This causes a single strand from the first chromosome to be used as a blueprint by the second chromosome. By using the invading strand as a template to make new DNA, the second chromosome acquires new genes from the first chro...
Carnegie Mellon U. conducts first comprehensive proteomic analysis of developing animal
...ent to witness changes that occurred as some cells folded
into the body to form structures including the nerves, immune system and muscles. This process, called gastrulation, is a critical growth step for virtually every animal, from insects to humans. During gastrulation, in a process called ventral furr...
Experiments establish 'protein-only' nature of prion infections
...otein-protein interactions, in which an abnormally folded
prion influences its normal counterpart to assume ...e temperature at which the newly produced proteins folded
into their infective shapes. "The use of temperature to influence folding was an elegant approach, b...
'Protein-only' prions confirmed in FSU yeast study
...e strains that (consist of only) one protein, just folded
differently." Using yeast as a model because of its reproductive speed and its safety (yeast prions are harmless), King and Diaz-Avalos demonstrated that prions act much the same way in yeast as they apparently do in mammals. When introduced int...
Household activities release a cloud of dust, increasing exposure to particulate pollution
... in a house in Redwood City, Calif., and then they folded
clothes, dusted, made beds, vacuumed and did other everyday activities not to mention some less common ones, like dancing. They applied a mathematical model to estimate the strength of each source. Dusting, of course, kicked up a significant amount ...
...lds on the Nano-Scale Similar to a piece of paper folded
into an origami box, the strand of DNA that Shih a...sory molecules. And, indeed, the DNA spontaneously folded
into the target structure. The researchers used cryoelectron microscopy, in collaboration with Rese...
A big surprise: Young nerve cells can rewind their developmental clocks
...velopment. The cerebral cortex is massively folded
gray matter incorporating billions of neurons. Despite its complexity, the cortex comprises six orderly layers of cortical cells that are laid down during development at a precise time and in a precise sequence. In the study, the researchers asked w...
Researchers design and build first artificial protein
...cording to Baker, the ability to specify a desired folded
protein structure and then to create that protein offers powerful scientific and practical benefits. "First, specifying a protein fold and then designing that protein is a very stringent test of our current understanding of the forces and energetics ...
Beyond biology: Simple system yields custom-designed proteins
...n the early 1990s showed that most of the proteins folded
into compact arrangements, but these were "mushy," fluctuating shapes instead of well-ordered, rigid structures. Hecht suspected that these proteins were simply too short to achieve a good structure and added amino acids to each sequence, making the...
Study shows prions stick around in certain soils
...nd decontamination measures, prions are abnormally folded
proteins that can make an animal's brain as holey ...he capacity of sand and clay to take up abnormally folded
proteins, says the lead researcher, "differs dramatically." Pedersen and his colleagues determined ...
Protein is shown to aid cell's reading of genetic code
...nto the nucleus of a cell, DNA must be packed into folded
structures called nucleosomes that in turn form higher order structures. When the cell needs to manufacture a particular protein, nucleosomes open to expose the part of the chromosomal DNA where the gene for that protein is located. This allows an e...
Tipping the balance of prion infectivity
...ns could cause species specificity by favoring one folded
form over another. "We hypothesized that if somet...ions caused the prion to be slower in adopting the folded
conformation that infected either the Sc or Ca strains of yeast. They found that these mutations cre...
Researchers identify protein modules that 'read' distinct gene 'silencing codes'
...xible protein chain that pokes through the tightly folded
chromatin complex. Each chromodomain therefore docks to a specific location, but not another. The research reported in the Genes & Development paper focuses on a chemical reaction called methylation that occurs on histone H3 (histones are made of fo...
Study finds direction of enzymes affects DNA repair
...y coiled in the bead-like nuclerosomes and densely folded
in order to fit inside the tiny nucleus of the cell. Repairs are complicated by this compact packaging, and Dr. Smerdon has shown that repair of damage cannot proceed until the DNA is unfolded. He said recently that understanding the repair...
Finished Y-chromosome sequence reveals a genomic 'crystal palace'
...es among the near-identical palindromes. They then folded
that sequence data back into their mapping to improve it. In order to minimize complications due to normal genetic variability among males, the sequencing was performed on the Y chromosome of one male, whose identity remains anonymous. Page said much...
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